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Determination of the Chemical Composition of Lithium Niobate Powders
Open AccessArticle

An Integrated Photonic Electric-Field Sensor Utilizing a 1 × 2 YBB Mach-Zehnder Interferometric Modulator with a Titanium-Diffused Lithium Niobate Waveguide and a Dipole Patch Antenna

Department of Electronic and Electrical Fusion Engineering, Hongik University, Sejong 30016, Korea
Crystals 2019, 9(9), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9090459
Received: 29 July 2019 / Revised: 22 August 2019 / Accepted: 31 August 2019 / Published: 2 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Lithium Niobate)
We studied photonic electric-field sensors using a 1 × 2 YBB-MZI modulator composed of two complementary outputs and a 3 dB directional coupler based on the electro-optic effect and titanium diffused lithium–niobate optical waveguides. The measured DC switching voltage and extinction ratio at the wavelength 1.3 μm were ~16.6 V and ~14.7 dB, respectively. The minimum detectable fields were ~1.12 V/m and ~3.3 V/m, corresponding to the ~22 dB and ~18 dB dynamic ranges of ~10 MHz and 50 MHz, respectively, for an rf power of 20 dBm. The sensor shows an almost linear response to the applied electric-field strength within the range of 0.29 V/m to 29.8 V/m. View Full-Text
Keywords: photonic electric-field sensor; titanium diffused optical channel waveguide; lithium–niobate electro-optic effect; Y-fed balanced-bridge Mach-Zehnder interferometer (YBB-MZI) photonic electric-field sensor; titanium diffused optical channel waveguide; lithium–niobate electro-optic effect; Y-fed balanced-bridge Mach-Zehnder interferometer (YBB-MZI)
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Jung, H. An Integrated Photonic Electric-Field Sensor Utilizing a 1 × 2 YBB Mach-Zehnder Interferometric Modulator with a Titanium-Diffused Lithium Niobate Waveguide and a Dipole Patch Antenna. Crystals 2019, 9, 459.

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