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Layered Double Hydroxides: A Toolbox for Chemistry and Biology

1
Department of Physics and Chemistry Emilio Segrè, University of Palermo, 90128 Palermo, Italy
2
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, 00133 Rome, Italy
3
Università degli Studi Niccolò Cusano, Via Don Carlo Gnocchi, 3, 00166 Rome, Italy
4
Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Crystals 2019, 9(7), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9070361
Received: 20 June 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 13 July 2019 / Published: 15 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Layered Double Hydroxides)
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Abstract

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are an emergent class of biocompatible inorganic lamellar nanomaterials that have attracted significant research interest owing to their high surface-to-volume ratio, the capability to accumulate specific molecules, and the timely release to targets. Their unique properties have been employed for applications in organic catalysis, photocatalysis, sensors, drug delivery, and cell biology. Given the widespread contemporary interest in these topics, time-to-time it urges to review the recent progresses. This review aims to summarize the most recent cutting-edge reports appearing in the last years. It firstly focuses on the application of LDHs as catalysts in relevant chemical reactions and as photocatalysts for organic molecule degradation, water splitting reaction, CO2 conversion, and reduction. Subsequently, the emerging role of these materials in biological applications is discussed, specifically focusing on their use as biosensors, DNA, RNA, and drug delivery, finally elucidating their suitability as contrast agents and for cellular differentiation. Concluding remarks and future prospects deal with future applications of LDHs, encouraging researches in better understanding the fundamental mechanisms involved in catalytic and photocatalytic processes, and the molecular pathways that are activated by the interaction of LDHs with cells in terms of both uptake mechanisms and nanotoxicology effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: layered double hydroxides; cellular biology; catalysis; DNA; drug delivery; hydrotalcite; osteogenesis; photocatalysis; RNA. layered double hydroxides; cellular biology; catalysis; DNA; drug delivery; hydrotalcite; osteogenesis; photocatalysis; RNA.
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Arrabito, G.; Bonasera, A.; Prestopino, G.; Orsini, A.; Mattoccia, A.; Martinelli, E.; Pignataro, B.; Medaglia, P.G. Layered Double Hydroxides: A Toolbox for Chemistry and Biology. Crystals 2019, 9, 361.

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