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Open AccessArticle

Mg-Fe Layered Double Hydroxides Enhance Surfactin Production in Bacterial Cells

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 145 Xingda Road, South District, Taichung 40227, Taiwan
2
Innovation and Development Center of Sustainable Agriculture, NCHU, Taichung 40227, Taiwan
3
Department of Cosmeceutics, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Crystals 2019, 9(7), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9070355
Received: 20 June 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Layered Double Hydroxides)
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Abstract

In this study, four additives—montmorillonite, activated carbon, and the layered double hydroxides (LDHs), Mg2Fe–LDH and Mg2Al–LDH—were tested for their ability to promote surfactin production in a Bacillus subtilis ATCC 21332 culture. Among these tested materials, the addition of 4 g/L of the Mg-Fe LDH, which featured an Mg/Fe molar ratio of 2:1, produced the highest surfactin yield of 5280 mg/L. During the time course of B. subtilis cultivation with the added LDH, two phases of cell growth were evident: Growth and decay. In the growth phase, the cells grew slowly and secreted a high amount of surfactin; in the decay phase, the cells degraded rapidly. The production in the presence of the Mg2Fe–LDH had three characteristics: (i) High surfactin production at low biomass, indicating a high specific surfactin yield of 3.19 g/g DCW; (ii) rapid surfactin production within 24 h, inferring remarkably high productivity (4660 mg/L/d); and (iii) a lower carbon source flux to biomass, suggesting an efficient carbon flux to surfactin, giving a high carbon yield of 52.8%. The addition of Mg2Fe–LDH is an effective means of enhancing surfactin production, with many potential applications and future industrial scale-up. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bacillus subtilis; surfactin; quantitative analysis; fermentation; growth phase; layered double hydroxides Bacillus subtilis; surfactin; quantitative analysis; fermentation; growth phase; layered double hydroxides
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Chang, P.-H.; Li, S.-Y.; Juang, T.-Y.; Liu, Y.-C. Mg-Fe Layered Double Hydroxides Enhance Surfactin Production in Bacterial Cells. Crystals 2019, 9, 355.

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