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Open AccessArticle

Mg-Fe Layered Double Hydroxides Enhance Surfactin Production in Bacterial Cells

Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 145 Xingda Road, South District, Taichung 40227, Taiwan
Innovation and Development Center of Sustainable Agriculture, NCHU, Taichung 40227, Taiwan
Department of Cosmeceutics, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Crystals 2019, 9(7), 355;
Received: 20 June 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Layered Double Hydroxides)
PDF [1262 KB, uploaded 12 July 2019]


In this study, four additives—montmorillonite, activated carbon, and the layered double hydroxides (LDHs), Mg2Fe–LDH and Mg2Al–LDH—were tested for their ability to promote surfactin production in a Bacillus subtilis ATCC 21332 culture. Among these tested materials, the addition of 4 g/L of the Mg-Fe LDH, which featured an Mg/Fe molar ratio of 2:1, produced the highest surfactin yield of 5280 mg/L. During the time course of B. subtilis cultivation with the added LDH, two phases of cell growth were evident: Growth and decay. In the growth phase, the cells grew slowly and secreted a high amount of surfactin; in the decay phase, the cells degraded rapidly. The production in the presence of the Mg2Fe–LDH had three characteristics: (i) High surfactin production at low biomass, indicating a high specific surfactin yield of 3.19 g/g DCW; (ii) rapid surfactin production within 24 h, inferring remarkably high productivity (4660 mg/L/d); and (iii) a lower carbon source flux to biomass, suggesting an efficient carbon flux to surfactin, giving a high carbon yield of 52.8%. The addition of Mg2Fe–LDH is an effective means of enhancing surfactin production, with many potential applications and future industrial scale-up. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bacillus subtilis; surfactin; quantitative analysis; fermentation; growth phase; layered double hydroxides Bacillus subtilis; surfactin; quantitative analysis; fermentation; growth phase; layered double hydroxides

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Chang, P.-H.; Li, S.-Y.; Juang, T.-Y.; Liu, Y.-C. Mg-Fe Layered Double Hydroxides Enhance Surfactin Production in Bacterial Cells. Crystals 2019, 9, 355.

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