Next Article in Journal
Collective Transformation of Water between Hyperactive Antifreeze Proteins: RiAFPs
Next Article in Special Issue
Ultra-High Light Extraction Efficiency and Ultra-Thin Mini-LED Solution by Freeform Surface Chip Scale Package Array
Previous Article in Journal
Enhancement of Lysozyme Crystallization Using DNA as a Polymeric Additive
Previous Article in Special Issue
Deep Etched Gallium Nitride Waveguide for Raman Spectroscopic Applications
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Crystals 2019, 9(4), 187;

Design and Fabrication of the Reliable GaN Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser via Tunnel Junction

Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, College of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan
Fok Ying Tung Research Institute, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong 511458, China
Crosslight Software Inc., Taiwan Branch, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan
Department of Electronic Science, Fujian Engineering Research Center for Solid-State Lighting, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GaN-Based Optoelectronic Materials and Light Emitting Devices)
PDF [3021 KB, uploaded 1 April 2019]


In this study, we theoretically designed and experimentally fabricated an InGaN vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a tunnel junction (TJ) structure. From numerical simulation results, the optical loss of the device can be reduced by a TJ structure. Additionally, the leakage current of the VCSEL with TJ structure was much smaller than that of the VCSEL with an Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) layer. We have been demonstrated that laser output performance is improved by using the TJ structure when compared to the typical VCSEL structure of the ITO layer. The output power obtained at 2.1 mW was enhanced by a factor of 3.5 by the successful reduction of threshold current density (Jth) from 12 to 8.5 kA/cm2, and the enlarged slope efficiency was due to less absorption in VCSEL with a TJ structure. Finally, the samples passed the high temperature (70 °C) and high operation current (1.5 × Jth) test for over 500 h. View Full-Text
Keywords: InGaN; VCSEL; tunnel junction InGaN; VCSEL; tunnel junction

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Shen, C.-C.; Lu, Y.-T.; Yeh, Y.-W.; Chen, C.-Y.; Chen, Y.-T.; Sher, C.-W.; Lee, P.-T.; Shih, Y.-H.; Lu, T.-C.; Wu, T.; Chiu, C.-H.; Kuo, H.-C. Design and Fabrication of the Reliable GaN Based Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser via Tunnel Junction. Crystals 2019, 9, 187.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Crystals EISSN 2073-4352 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top