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Open AccessArticle

Intrinsic Ferroelectricity in Charge-Ordered Magnetite

1
Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS and Peter Grünberg Institut PGI, JARA-FIT, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich, Germany
2
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Wolfson Building for Mechanical Engineering, Tel Aviv-Yafo 6997801, Israel
3
Department of Physics, University of Siegen, 57072 Siegen, Germany
4
Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), 22603 Hamburg, Germany
5
II. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, 50937 Köln, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439, USA.
Crystals 2019, 9(11), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9110546
Received: 30 September 2019 / Revised: 14 October 2019 / Accepted: 19 October 2019 / Published: 23 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Phenomena of Transition Metal Oxides)
Single crystalline magnetite Fe3O4 was investigated at low temperatures in the charge ordered state by electric measurements and time-resolved diffraction with voltage applied in-situ. Dielectric spectroscopy indicates relaxor ferroelectric characteristics, with polarization switching observably only at sufficiently low temperatures and in a suitably chosen time-window. PUND measurements with a ms time scale indicate a switchable polarization of about 0.6 µC/cm2. Significant switching occurs only above a threshold field of about 3 kV/mm, and it occurs with a time delay of about 20 µs. The time-resolved diffraction experiment yields, for sufficiently high voltage pulses, a systematic variation by about 0.1% of the intensity of the ( 2 , 2 ¯ , 10 ¯ ) Bragg reflection, which is attributed to structural switching of domains of the non-centrosymmetric C c structure to its inversion twins, providing proof of intrinsic ferroelectricity in charge ordered magnetite. View Full-Text
Keywords: ferroelectric; multiferroic; charge order; magnetite; Verwey transition; time-resolved X-ray diffraction; PUND measurements; resonant scattering; Friedel mates ferroelectric; multiferroic; charge order; magnetite; Verwey transition; time-resolved X-ray diffraction; PUND measurements; resonant scattering; Friedel mates
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MDPI and ACS Style

Angst, M.; Adiga, S.; Gorfman, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Strempfer, J.; Grams, C.; Pietsch, M.; Hemberger, J. Intrinsic Ferroelectricity in Charge-Ordered Magnetite. Crystals 2019, 9, 546. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9110546

AMA Style

Angst M, Adiga S, Gorfman S, Ziolkowski M, Strempfer J, Grams C, Pietsch M, Hemberger J. Intrinsic Ferroelectricity in Charge-Ordered Magnetite. Crystals. 2019; 9(11):546. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9110546

Chicago/Turabian Style

Angst, Manuel; Adiga, Shilpa; Gorfman, Semen; Ziolkowski, Michael; Strempfer, Jörg; Grams, Christoph; Pietsch, Manuel; Hemberger, Joachim. 2019. "Intrinsic Ferroelectricity in Charge-Ordered Magnetite" Crystals 9, no. 11: 546. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9110546

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