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Open AccessArticle

Environmental-Friendly Synthesis of Alkyl Carbamates from Urea and Alcohols with Silica Gel Supported Catalysts

by Yubo Ma 1,2, Lei Wang 1,3,*, Xiaodong Yang 4,* and Ronghui Zhang 5
1
School of Chemical Engineering, Chongqing Chemical Industry Vocational College, Chongqing 401220, China
2
Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
3
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830011, China
4
Institute of Resources and Environment Science, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830011, China
5
Guangdong Key Laboratory of Intelligent Transportation System, School of Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2018, 8(12), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8120579
Received: 7 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 19 November 2018 / Published: 23 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Catalysis)
TiO2/SiO2, Cr2O3-NiO/SiO2, and TiO2-Cr2O3/SiO2 were prepared by the impregnation method for alkyl carbamate synthesis using urea as the carbonyl source. Up to 97.5% methyl carbamate yield, 97% ethyl carbamate yield, and 96% butyl carbamate yield could be achieved, respectively. The catalysts were characterized by ICP-AES, BET, XRD, XPS, NH3-TPD, and EPMA. Catalytic activity investigation revealed that TiO2/SiO2, Cr2O3-NiO/SiO2, and TiO2-Cr2O3/SiO2 were effective catalysts for methyl carbamate (MC), ethyl carbamate (EC), and butyl carbamate (BC), respectively. The recycling tests suggested that these silica gel supported catalyst system is active, stable, and reusable. A total of 96–97% alkyl carbamate (methyl, ethyl, and butyl) could be obtained in a 2 L autoclave, and these data suggested that our catalyst system is relatively easy to scale up. View Full-Text
Keywords: alkyl carbamate; TiO2/SiO2; TiO2-Cr2O3/SiO2; Cr2O3-NiO/SiO2; urea; alcohol alkyl carbamate; TiO2/SiO2; TiO2-Cr2O3/SiO2; Cr2O3-NiO/SiO2; urea; alcohol
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Ma, Y.; Wang, L.; Yang, X.; Zhang, R. Environmental-Friendly Synthesis of Alkyl Carbamates from Urea and Alcohols with Silica Gel Supported Catalysts. Catalysts 2018, 8, 579.

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