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Article

Selectivity and Sustainability of Electroenzymatic Process for Glucose Conversion to Gluconic Acid

1
Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems; Sandtorstr 1, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany
2
Process Systems Engineering, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Universitätsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany
3
Institut für Chemie, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2020, 10(3), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10030269
Received: 17 January 2020 / Revised: 17 February 2020 / Accepted: 19 February 2020 / Published: 1 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art and Future Trends in Nanostructured Biocatalysis)
Electroenzymatic processes are interesting solutions for the development of new processes based on renewable feedstocks, renewable energies, and green catalysts. High-selectivity and sustainability of these processes are usually assumed. In this contribution, these two aspects were studied in more detail. In a membrane-less electroenzymatic reactor, 97% product selectivity at 80% glucose conversion to gluconic acid was determined. With the help of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, two main side products were identified. The yields of D-arabinose and formic acid can be controlled by the flow rate and the electroenzymatic reactor mode of operation (fuel cell or ion-pumping). The possible pathways for the side product formation have been discussed. The electroenzymatic cathode was found to be responsible for a decrease in selectivity. The choice of the enzymatic catalyst on the cathode side led to 100% selectivity of gluconic acid at somewhat reduced conversion. Furthermore, sustainability of the electroenzymatic process is estimated based on several sustainability indicators. Although some indicators (like Space Time Yield) are favorable for electroenzymatic process, the E-factor of electroenzymatic process has to improve significantly in order to compete with the fermentation process. This can be achieved by an increase of a cycle time and/or enzyme utilization which is currently low. View Full-Text
Keywords: electroenzymatic reactor; glucose oxidase; horseradish peroxidase; gluconic acid; 3-D enzymatic electrodes; process sustainability electroenzymatic reactor; glucose oxidase; horseradish peroxidase; gluconic acid; 3-D enzymatic electrodes; process sustainability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Varničić, M.; Zasheva, I.N.; Haak, E.; Sundmacher, K.; Vidaković-Koch, T. Selectivity and Sustainability of Electroenzymatic Process for Glucose Conversion to Gluconic Acid. Catalysts 2020, 10, 269. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10030269

AMA Style

Varničić M, Zasheva IN, Haak E, Sundmacher K, Vidaković-Koch T. Selectivity and Sustainability of Electroenzymatic Process for Glucose Conversion to Gluconic Acid. Catalysts. 2020; 10(3):269. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10030269

Chicago/Turabian Style

Varničić, Miroslava, Iva N. Zasheva, Edgar Haak, Kai Sundmacher, and Tanja Vidaković-Koch. 2020. "Selectivity and Sustainability of Electroenzymatic Process for Glucose Conversion to Gluconic Acid" Catalysts 10, no. 3: 269. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10030269

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