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Open AccessReview

Recent Advances in Continuous-Flow Reactions Using Metal-Free Homogeneous Catalysts

1
Laboratory for Chemistry and Life Science, Institute of Innovative Research, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8503, Japan
2
School of Life Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8501, Japan
3
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2020, 10(11), 1321; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10111321
Received: 23 October 2020 / Revised: 9 November 2020 / Accepted: 9 November 2020 / Published: 13 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuous-Flow Catalysis)
Developments that result in high-yielding, low-cost, safe, scalable, and less-wasteful processes are the most important goals in synthetic organic chemistry. Continuous-flow reactions have garnered much attention due to many advantages over conventional batch reactions that include precise control of short reaction times and temperatures, low risk in handling dangerous compounds, and ease in scaling up synthesis. Combinations of continuous-flow reactions with homogeneous, metal-free catalysts further enhances advantages that include low-cost and ready availability, low toxicity, higher stability in air and water, and increased synthetic efficiency due to the avoidance of the time-consuming removal of toxic metal traces. This review summarizes recently reported continuous-flow reactions using metal-free homogeneous catalysts and classifies them either as acidic catalysts, basic catalysts, or miscellaneous catalysts. In addition, we compare the results between continuous-flow conditions and conventional batch conditions to reveal the advantages of using flow reactions with metal-free homogeneous catalysts. View Full-Text
Keywords: continuous-flow; micro-flow; micro-reactor; metal-free catalyst; organocatalyst; homogeneous reaction continuous-flow; micro-flow; micro-reactor; metal-free catalyst; organocatalyst; homogeneous reaction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sugisawa, N.; Nakamura, H.; Fuse, S. Recent Advances in Continuous-Flow Reactions Using Metal-Free Homogeneous Catalysts. Catalysts 2020, 10, 1321. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10111321

AMA Style

Sugisawa N, Nakamura H, Fuse S. Recent Advances in Continuous-Flow Reactions Using Metal-Free Homogeneous Catalysts. Catalysts. 2020; 10(11):1321. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10111321

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sugisawa, Naoto; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Fuse, Shinichiro. 2020. "Recent Advances in Continuous-Flow Reactions Using Metal-Free Homogeneous Catalysts" Catalysts 10, no. 11: 1321. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10111321

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