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Review

Definition, Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Essential Criteria for Diagnosis of Pediatric Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

1
Pediatric Hemato-Oncology, Medical Faculty, Technical University Dresden, D-01307 Dresden, Germany
2
Inserm CIC 1402, University Hospital Poitiers, F-86000 Poitiers, France
3
Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital Erlangen, D-91504 Erlangen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marc Delord and Gabriel Etienne
Cancers 2021, 13(4), 798; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040798
Received: 11 January 2021 / Revised: 4 February 2021 / Accepted: 8 February 2021 / Published: 14 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Myeloid Leukemia)
The low incidence (1:1,000,000) of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in the first two decades of life presents an obstacle to accumulation of pediatric experience and knowledge on this leukemia. Biological features of CML are shared but also differing between adult and pediatric patients. This review aims; (i) to define the disease based on an unified terminology, (ii) to list the diseases to be considered as a differential diagnosis in children, (iii) to outlines the morphological, histopathological and immuno-phenotypical findings of pediatric CML, (iv) to illustrate rare but classical complications resulting from high white cell and platelet counts at diagnosis, and (v) to recommend a uniform approach for the diagnostic procedures to be applied. Evidently, only a clear detailed picture of all relevant features can lay the basis for standardized treatment approaches.
Depending on the analytical tool applied, the hallmarks of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) are the Philadelphia Chromosome and the resulting mRNA fusion transcript BCR-ABL1. With an incidence of 1 per 1 million of children this malignancy is very rare in the first 20 years of life. This article aims to; (i) define the disease based on the WHO nomenclature, the appropriate ICD 11 code and to unify the terminology, (ii) delineate features of epidemiology, etiology, and pathophysiology that are shared, but also differing between adult and pediatric patients with CML, (iii) give a short summary on the diseases to be considered as a differential diagnosis of pediatric CML, (iv) to describe the morphological, histopathological and immunophenotypical findings of CML in pediatric patients, (v) illustrate rare but classical complications resulting from rheological problems observed at diagnosis, (vi) list essential and desirable diagnostic criteria, which hopefully in the future will help to unify the attempts when approaching this rare pediatric malignancy. View Full-Text
Keywords: pediatric CML; diagnostic essential criteria; epidemiology; pathophysiology pediatric CML; diagnostic essential criteria; epidemiology; pathophysiology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Suttorp, M.; Millot, F.; Sembill, S.; Deutsch, H.; Metzler, M. Definition, Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Essential Criteria for Diagnosis of Pediatric Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. Cancers 2021, 13, 798. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040798

AMA Style

Suttorp M, Millot F, Sembill S, Deutsch H, Metzler M. Definition, Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Essential Criteria for Diagnosis of Pediatric Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. Cancers. 2021; 13(4):798. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040798

Chicago/Turabian Style

Suttorp, Meinolf; Millot, Frédéric; Sembill, Stephanie; Deutsch, Hélène; Metzler, Markus. 2021. "Definition, Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Essential Criteria for Diagnosis of Pediatric Chronic Myeloid Leukemia" Cancers 13, no. 4: 798. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040798

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