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Article

Feasibility, SAR Distribution, and Clinical Outcome upon Reirradiation and Deep Hyperthermia Using the Hypercollar3D in Head and Neck Cancer Patients

1
Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, 3015GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands
2
Holland Proton Therapy Center, 2629JH Delft, The Netherlands
3
Department of Hematology, HOVON Data Center, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, 3015GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands
4
Department of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, 3015GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands
5
Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5612AZ Eindhoven, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Lorenzo Preda and Primož Strojan
Cancers 2021, 13(23), 6149; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13236149
Received: 16 September 2021 / Revised: 4 December 2021 / Accepted: 5 December 2021 / Published: 6 December 2021
Following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, patients are at risk for developing a recurrent or second tumor. Often reirradiation is required in these patients, which is hampered in dose by the previous irradiation. Besides chemotherapy, hyperthermia can potentially increase the effectivity of the radiotherapy. In this study we have used a new hyperthermia applicator in order to increase the effectivity of the radiotherapy in patients requiring reirradiation. We show that the added hyperthermia treatment is tolerated by patients and that we reach a higher hyperthermia dose to the tumor compared to the previous applicator. In addition, we show that the tumor control and survival as well as toxicity are similar compared to what has been reported in literature using chemotherapy as an additive to reirradiation in head and neck cancer patients.
(1) Background: Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients with recurrent or second primary (SP) tumors in previously irradiated areas represent a clinical challenge. Definitive or postoperative reirradiation with or without sensitizing therapy, like chemotherapy, should be considered. As an alternative to chemotherapy, hyperthermia has shown to be a potent sensitizer of radiotherapy in clinical studies in the primary treatment of HNC. At our institution, we developed the Hypercollar3D, as the successor to the Hypercollar, to enable improved application of hyperthermia for deeply located HNC. In this study, we report on the feasibility and clinical outcome of patients treated with the Hypercollar3D as an adjuvant to reirradiation in recurrent or SP HNC patients; (2) Methods: We retrospectively analyzed all patients with a recurrent or SP HNC treated with reirradiation combined with hyperthermia using the Hypercollar3D between 2014 and 2018. Data on patients, tumors, and treatments were collected. Follow-up data on disease specific outcomes as well as acute and late toxicity were collected. Data were analyzed using Kaplan Meier analyses; (3) Results: Twenty-two patients with recurrent or SP HNC were included. The average mean estimated applied cfSAR to the tumor volume for the last 17 patients was 80.5 W/kg. Therefore, the novel Hypercollar3D deposits 55% more energy at the target than our previous Hypercollar applicator. In patients treated with definitive thermoradiotherapy a complete response rate of 81.8% (9/11) was observed at 12 weeks following radiotherapy. Two-year local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) were 36.4% (95% CI 17.4–55.7%) and 54.6% (95% CI 32.1–72.4%), respectively. Patients with an interval longer than 24 months from their previous radiotherapy course had an LC of 66.7% (95% CI 37.5–84.6%), whereas patients with a time interval shorter than 24 months had an LC of 14.3% (95% CI 0.7–46.5%) at 18 months (p = 0.01). Cumulative grade 3 or higher toxicity was 39.2% (95% CI 16.0–61.9%); (4) Conclusions: Reirradiation combined with deep hyperthermia in HNC patients using the novel Hypercollar3D is feasible and deposits an average cfSAR of 80.5 W/kg in the tumor volume. The treatment results in high complete response rates at 12 weeks post-treatment. Local control and local toxicity rates were comparable to those reported for recurrent or SP HNC. To further optimize the hyperthermia treatment in the future, temperature feedback is warranted to apply heat at the maximum tolerable dose without toxicity. These data support further research in hyperthermia as an adjuvant to radiotherapy, both in the recurrent as well as in the primary treatment of HNC patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: head and neck cancer; hyperthermia; reirradiation; treatment outcome head and neck cancer; hyperthermia; reirradiation; treatment outcome
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kroesen, M.; van Holthe, N.; Sumser, K.; Chitu, D.; Vernhout, R.; Verduijn, G.; Franckena, M.; Hardillo, J.; van Rhoon, G.; Paulides, M. Feasibility, SAR Distribution, and Clinical Outcome upon Reirradiation and Deep Hyperthermia Using the Hypercollar3D in Head and Neck Cancer Patients. Cancers 2021, 13, 6149. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13236149

AMA Style

Kroesen M, van Holthe N, Sumser K, Chitu D, Vernhout R, Verduijn G, Franckena M, Hardillo J, van Rhoon G, Paulides M. Feasibility, SAR Distribution, and Clinical Outcome upon Reirradiation and Deep Hyperthermia Using the Hypercollar3D in Head and Neck Cancer Patients. Cancers. 2021; 13(23):6149. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13236149

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kroesen, Michiel, Netteke van Holthe, Kemal Sumser, Dana Chitu, Rene Vernhout, Gerda Verduijn, Martine Franckena, Jose Hardillo, Gerard van Rhoon, and Margarethus Paulides. 2021. "Feasibility, SAR Distribution, and Clinical Outcome upon Reirradiation and Deep Hyperthermia Using the Hypercollar3D in Head and Neck Cancer Patients" Cancers 13, no. 23: 6149. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13236149

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