Harnessing the Immune System to Fight Multiple Myeloma
Centre for Cellular Immunotherapy of Haematological Cancer Odense (CITCO), Odense University Hospital, 5000 Odense, Denmark
Department of Haematology, Odense University Hospital, 5000 Odense, Denmark
Haematology Research Unit, Department of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, 5000 Odense, Denmark
Department of Clinical Immunology, Odense University Hospital, 5000 Odense, Denmark
Haematology-Pathology Research Laboratory, Research Unit for Haematology and Research Unit for Pathology, University of Southern Denmark and Odense University Hospital, 5000 Odense, Denmark
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gabor Mikala
Received: 21 July 2021
Revised: 3 September 2021
Accepted: 6 September 2021
Published: 10 September 2021
Multiple myeloma treatment has developed enormously within the last two decades. Most recently immunotherapies have been introduced. Monoclonal antibodies targeting the plasma cell surface marker CD38, daratumumab and isatuximab, have revolutionized the standard of care treatment, and CAR T-cell therapy has been FDA-approved for the treatment of relapsed, refractory multiple myeloma. However, many other immunotherapeutic principles are under current clinical testing. It is well described that immune dysfunction is present in multiple myeloma and worsens by disease progression and may even be involved in the transformation to malignancy from benign precursor states, smoldering myeloma, and MGUS. Thus, attempts to revive and engage the innate and adaptive immune system are appealing. The ultimate goal is the cure or prevention of cancer development. In this review, the reader receives basic information on the immune dysfunction in multiple myeloma, a thorough summary of the ways to harness the immune system in treatment, the current status of clinical development, and future aspects.