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Cellular and Molecular Progression of Prostate Cancer: Models for Basic and Preclinical Research

1
Cancer Biology Program, Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36604, USA
2
Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36617, USA
3
Department of Medical Oncology, Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36604, USA
4
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(9), 2651; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12092651
Received: 26 August 2020 / Revised: 10 September 2020 / Accepted: 11 September 2020 / Published: 17 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urological Cancer 2020)
The molecular progression of prostate cancer is complex and elusive. Biological research relies heavily on in vitro and in vivo models that can be used to examine gene functions and responses to the external agents in laboratory and preclinical settings. Over the years, several models have been developed and found to be very helpful in understanding the biology of prostate cancer. Here we describe these models in the context of available information on the cellular and molecular progression of prostate cancer to suggest their potential utility in basic and preclinical prostate cancer research. The information discussed herein should serve as a hands-on resource for scholars engaged in prostate cancer research or to those who are making a transition to explore the complex biology of prostate cancer.
We have witnessed noteworthy progress in our understanding of prostate cancer over the past decades. This basic knowledge has been translated into efficient diagnostic and treatment approaches leading to the improvement in patient survival. However, the molecular pathogenesis of prostate cancer appears to be complex, and histological findings often do not provide an accurate assessment of disease aggressiveness and future course. Moreover, we also witness tremendous racial disparity in prostate cancer incidence and clinical outcomes necessitating a deeper understanding of molecular and mechanistic bases of prostate cancer. Biological research heavily relies on model systems that can be easily manipulated and tested under a controlled experimental environment. Over the years, several cancer cell lines have been developed representing diverse molecular subtypes of prostate cancer. In addition, several animal models have been developed to demonstrate the etiological molecular basis of the prostate cancer. In recent years, patient-derived xenograft and 3-D culture models have also been created and utilized in preclinical research. This review is an attempt to succinctly discuss existing information on the cellular and molecular progression of prostate cancer. We also discuss available model systems and their tested and potential utility in basic and preclinical prostate cancer research. View Full-Text
Keywords: prostate cancer; research model; oncogenes; tumor suppressor genes prostate cancer; research model; oncogenes; tumor suppressor genes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Saranyutanon, S.; Deshmukh, S.K.; Dasgupta, S.; Pai, S.; Singh, S.; Singh, A.P. Cellular and Molecular Progression of Prostate Cancer: Models for Basic and Preclinical Research. Cancers 2020, 12, 2651. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12092651

AMA Style

Saranyutanon S, Deshmukh SK, Dasgupta S, Pai S, Singh S, Singh AP. Cellular and Molecular Progression of Prostate Cancer: Models for Basic and Preclinical Research. Cancers. 2020; 12(9):2651. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12092651

Chicago/Turabian Style

Saranyutanon, Sirin, Sachin K. Deshmukh, Santanu Dasgupta, Sachin Pai, Seema Singh, and Ajay P. Singh 2020. "Cellular and Molecular Progression of Prostate Cancer: Models for Basic and Preclinical Research" Cancers 12, no. 9: 2651. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12092651

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