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Understanding the Role of Innate Immune Cells and Identifying Genes in Breast Cancer Microenvironment

1
Department of Clinical Sciences and the Immuno-Oncology Group, Sharjah Institute for Medical Research, University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272, UAE
2
College of Medicine, Mohammed Bin Rashid University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dubai 505055, UAE
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(8), 2226; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12082226
Received: 24 June 2020 / Revised: 28 July 2020 / Accepted: 7 August 2020 / Published: 9 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Identification of Candidate Genes in Breast and Ovarian Cancer)
The innate immune system is the first line of defense against invading pathogens and has a major role in clearing transformed cells, besides its essential role in activating the adaptive immune system. Macrophages, dendritic cells, NK cells, and granulocytes are part of the innate immune system that accumulate in the tumor microenvironment such as breast cancer. These cells induce inflammation in situ by secreting cytokines and chemokines that promote tumor growth and progression, in addition to orchestrating the activities of other immune cells. In breast cancer microenvironment, innate immune cells are skewed towards immunosuppression that may lead to tumor evasion. However, the mechanisms by which immune cells could interact with breast cancer cells are complex and not fully understood. Therefore, the importance of the mammary tumor microenvironment in the development, growth, and progression of cancer is widely recognized. With the advances of using bioinformatics and analyzing data from gene banks, several genes involved in NK cells of breast cancer individuals have been identified. In this review, we discuss the activities of certain genes involved in the cross-talk among NK cells and breast cancer. Consequently, altering tumor immune microenvironment can make breast tumors more responsive to immunotherapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: innate immunity; breast cancer; microenvironment; NK cells; bioinformatics; genes; immune cells; cytokines; chemokines innate immunity; breast cancer; microenvironment; NK cells; bioinformatics; genes; immune cells; cytokines; chemokines
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Shihab, I.; Khalil, B.A.; Elemam, N.M.; Hachim, I.Y.; Hachim, M.Y.; Hamoudi, R.A.; Maghazachi, A.A. Understanding the Role of Innate Immune Cells and Identifying Genes in Breast Cancer Microenvironment. Cancers 2020, 12, 2226.

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