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Review

Satellitosis, a Crosstalk between Neurons, Vascular Structures and Neoplastic Cells in Brain Tumours; Early Manifestation of Invasive Behaviour

1
Brain Tumour Research Centre, Institute of Biological and Biomedical Sciences (IBBS), School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 2DT, UK
2
School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3NB, UK
3
Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, Pisa University Hospital, 56100 Pisa, Italy
4
Division of Neuroscience, Department of Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, Institute of Psychiatry & Neurology, King’s College London, London SE5 9RX, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(12), 3720; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12123720
Received: 9 November 2020 / Revised: 28 November 2020 / Accepted: 4 December 2020 / Published: 11 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Therapies for the Treatment of Glioblastoma)
This article reviews the concept of cellular satellitosis as originally described histologically by Santiago Ramón y Cajal in 1899 and Hans Joachim Scherer, more specifically in the context of glioblastoma invasiveness, during the early part of the 20th century. With the advent of new and emerging molecular technologies in the 21st century, the significance of both vascular and neuronal satellitosis by neoplastic cells offers intriguing possibilities into further clarifying the development, pathobiology and therapy of malignant glioma through closer investigation into the nature of these histological hallmarks.
The secondary structures of Scherer commonly known as perineuronal and perivascular satellitosis have been identified as a histopathological hallmark of diffuse, invasive, high-grade gliomas. They are recognised as perineuronal satellitosis when clusters of neoplastic glial cells surround neurons cell bodies and perivascular satellitosis when such tumour cells surround blood vessels infiltrating Virchow–Robin spaces. In this review, we provide an overview of emerging knowledge regarding how interactions between neurons and glioma cells can modulate tumour evolution and how neurons play a key role in glioma growth and progression, as well as the role of perivascular satellitosis into mechanisms of glioma cells spread. At the same time, we review the current knowledge about the role of perineuronal satellitosis and perivascular satellitosis within the tumour microenvironment (TME), in order to highlight critical knowledge gaps in research space. View Full-Text
Keywords: brain tumour; satellitosis; glioblastoma; tumour heterogeneity; perineuronal satellitosis; perivascular satellitosis; invasion brain tumour; satellitosis; glioblastoma; tumour heterogeneity; perineuronal satellitosis; perivascular satellitosis; invasion
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MDPI and ACS Style

Civita, P.; Valerio, O.; Naccarato, A.G.; Gumbleton, M.; Pilkington, G.J. Satellitosis, a Crosstalk between Neurons, Vascular Structures and Neoplastic Cells in Brain Tumours; Early Manifestation of Invasive Behaviour. Cancers 2020, 12, 3720. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12123720

AMA Style

Civita P, Valerio O, Naccarato AG, Gumbleton M, Pilkington GJ. Satellitosis, a Crosstalk between Neurons, Vascular Structures and Neoplastic Cells in Brain Tumours; Early Manifestation of Invasive Behaviour. Cancers. 2020; 12(12):3720. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12123720

Chicago/Turabian Style

Civita, Prospero, Ortenzi Valerio, Antonio G. Naccarato, Mark Gumbleton, and Geoffrey J. Pilkington 2020. "Satellitosis, a Crosstalk between Neurons, Vascular Structures and Neoplastic Cells in Brain Tumours; Early Manifestation of Invasive Behaviour" Cancers 12, no. 12: 3720. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12123720

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