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Functional Classification of TP53 Mutations in Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Review

The Polemic Diagnostic Role of TP53 Mutations in Liquid Biopsies from Breast, Colon and Lung Cancers

1
GENYO Centre for Genomics and Oncological Research, formed by Pfizer, the University of Granada and the Andalusian Regional Government, PTS Granada, Liquid Biopsy and Cancer Interception Group, Av. de la Ilustración, 114, 18016 Granada, Spain
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Universidad Internacional de la Rioja, Avenida de la Paz, 137, 26006 Logroño, Spain
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Departamento de Medicina, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Granada, 18016 Granada, Spain
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Servicio de Cirugía General y del Aparato Digestivo, Hospital Clínico San Cecilio, 18016 Granada, Spain
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Department of Thoracic Surgery, Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Av. de las Fuerzas Armadas, 2, 18014 Granada, Spain
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Bio-Health Research Institute (Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs. GRANADA), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Granada (CHUG), University of Granada, 18012 Granada, Spain
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Laboratory of Genetic Identification, Department of Legal Medicine, University of Granada, Av. de la Investigación, 11, 18071 Granada, Spain
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Department of Pathological Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Campus de Ciencias de la Salud, University of Granada, 18016 Granada, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Cancers 2020, 12(11), 3343; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113343
Received: 6 October 2020 / Revised: 2 November 2020 / Accepted: 10 November 2020 / Published: 12 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue P53 and Hallmarks of Cancer)
Most solid tumors share mutations in TP53 that is thus considered one of the main cancer driver genes. Mutations in TP53 occur very early during tumor development, so their identification helps in diagnosing cancer. Furthermore, knowing in advance the TP53 mutation status might help guiding targeted treatments against this gene. However, this analysis is mainly performed in tissue samples, that is, solid biopsies, being an invasive technique. Contrarily, liquid biopsies, consisting of the analysis of blood samples, are non-invasive, can be performed repeatedly, helping in monitoring the patient evolution, and might be useful in early stages when the tumor is not yet detected by other technologies. Here, we review the main studies conducted on two types of liquid biopsies: circulating tumor cells and cell-free DNA. We discuss the main findings regarding TP53 mutation analysis, the clinical utility of this information and some controversies arising from the study of liquid biopsies compared to tissue samples, and we finish by suggesting future directions within this field.
Being minimally invasive and thus allowing repeated measures over time, liquid biopsies are taking over traditional solid biopsies in certain circumstances such as those for unreachable tumors, very early stages or treatment monitoring. However, regarding TP53 mutation status analysis, liquid biopsies have not yet substituted tissue samples, mainly due to the lack of concordance between the two types of biopsies. This needs to be examined in a study-dependent manner, taking into account the particular type of liquid biopsy analyzed, that is, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) or cell-free DNA (cfDNA), its involvement in the tumor biology and evolution and, finally, the technology used to analyze each biopsy type. Here, we review the main studies analyzing TP53 mutations in either CTCs or cfDNA in the three more prevalent solid tumors: breast, colon and lung cancers. We evaluate the correlation for mutation status between liquid biopsies and tumor tissue, suggesting possible sources of discrepancies, as well as evaluating the clinical utility of using liquid biopsies for the analysis of TP53 mutation status and the future actions that need to be undertaken to make liquid biopsy analysis a reality for the evaluation of TP53 mutations. View Full-Text
Keywords: TP53 mutations; liquid biopsy; cfDNA; CTC; tissue; concordance TP53 mutations; liquid biopsy; cfDNA; CTC; tissue; concordance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Garrido-Navas, M.C.; García-Díaz, A.; Molina-Vallejo, M.P.; González-Martínez, C.; Alcaide Lucena, M.; Cañas-García, I.; Bayarri, C.; Delgado, J.R.; González, E.; Lorente, J.A.; Serrano, M.J. The Polemic Diagnostic Role of TP53 Mutations in Liquid Biopsies from Breast, Colon and Lung Cancers. Cancers 2020, 12, 3343. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113343

AMA Style

Garrido-Navas MC, García-Díaz A, Molina-Vallejo MP, González-Martínez C, Alcaide Lucena M, Cañas-García I, Bayarri C, Delgado JR, González E, Lorente JA, Serrano MJ. The Polemic Diagnostic Role of TP53 Mutations in Liquid Biopsies from Breast, Colon and Lung Cancers. Cancers. 2020; 12(11):3343. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113343

Chicago/Turabian Style

Garrido-Navas, M. C., Abel García-Díaz, Maria P. Molina-Vallejo, Coral González-Martínez, Miriam Alcaide Lucena, Inés Cañas-García, Clara Bayarri, Juan R. Delgado, Encarna González, Jose A. Lorente, and M. J. Serrano. 2020. "The Polemic Diagnostic Role of TP53 Mutations in Liquid Biopsies from Breast, Colon and Lung Cancers" Cancers 12, no. 11: 3343. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113343

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