Advances in Prognostic Methylation Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer
Epigenetics Research Laboratory, Genomics and Epigenetics Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, New South Wales 2010, Australia
St. Vincent’s Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2010, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors have contributed equally.
Received: 22 September 2020 / Revised: 12 October 2020 / Accepted: 13 October 2020 / Published: 15 October 2020
Prostate cancer is a major cause of cancer-related death in men worldwide. There is an urgent clinical need for improved prognostic biomarkers to better predict the likely outcome and course of the disease and thus inform the clinical management of these patients. Currently, clinically recognised prognostic markers lack sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing aggressive from indolent disease, particularly in patients with localised, intermediate grade prostate cancer. Thus, there is major interest in identifying new molecular biomarkers to complement existing standard clinicopathological markers. DNA methylation is a frequent alteration in the cancer genome and offers potential as a reliable and robust biomarker. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of DNA methylation biomarker studies in prostate cancer prognosis. We highlight advances in this field that have enabled the discovery of novel prognostic genes and discuss the potential of methylation biomarkers for noninvasive liquid-biopsy testing.