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Open AccessReview

Non-Invasive Early Molecular Detection of Gastric Cancers

1
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki 216-8511, Japan
2
Department of Internal Medicine, Kawasaki Rinko General Hospital, Kawasaki 210-0806, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(10), 2880; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12102880
Received: 31 August 2020 / Revised: 29 September 2020 / Accepted: 4 October 2020 / Published: 7 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Invasive Early Detection of Cancers)
This paper reviewed an update on the molecular detection of gastric cancers, focusing on various diagnostic approaches, including nonblood analytes, specifically gastric juices or washes. This comprehensive review demonstrates how liquid biopsy may be beneficial in identifying and optimizing new diagnostic approaches for gastric cancer.
Gastric cancer (GC) is a significant source of global cancer death with a high mortality rate, because the majority of patients with GC are diagnosed at a late stage, with limited therapeutic choices and poor outcomes. Therefore, development of minimally invasive or noninvasive biomarkers which are specific to GC is crucially needed. The latest advancements in the understanding of GC molecular landscapes and molecular biological methods have accelerated attempts to diagnose GC at an early stage. Body fluids, including peripheral blood, saliva, gastric juice/wash, urine, and others, can be a source of biomarkers, offering new methods for the early detection of GC. Liquid biopsy-based methods using circulating sources of cancer nucleic acids could also be considered as alternative strategies. Moreover, investigating gastric juices/washes could represent an alternative for the detection of GC via invasive biopsy. This review summarizes recently reported biomarkers based on DNA methylation, microRNA, long noncoding RNA, circular RNA, or extracellular vesicles (exosomes) for the detection of GC. Although the majority of studies have been conducted to detect these alterations in advanced-stage GC and only a few in population studies or early-stage GC, some biomarkers are potentially valuable for the development of novel approaches for an early noninvasive detection of GC. View Full-Text
Keywords: liquid biopsy; DNA methylation; microRNA; long noncoding RNA; circular RNA; extracellular vesicles; gastric juice; gastric wash liquid biopsy; DNA methylation; microRNA; long noncoding RNA; circular RNA; extracellular vesicles; gastric juice; gastric wash
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Yamamoto, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Sato, Y.; Maehata, T.; Itoh, F. Non-Invasive Early Molecular Detection of Gastric Cancers. Cancers 2020, 12, 2880.

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