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Open AccessArticle

Combined Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Adipocyte Renin–Angiotensin System Inhibition on Breast Cancer Cell Inflammation and Migration

1
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Texas Tech University, 1301 Akron Ave, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA
2
Obesity Research Institute, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA
3
Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Science Center, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA
4
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(1), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12010220
Received: 30 November 2019 / Revised: 9 January 2020 / Accepted: 11 January 2020 / Published: 16 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Natural Bioactive Compounds in the Rise and Fall of Cancers)
Obesity is a major risk factor for breast cancer (BC). Obesity-related metabolic alterations such as inflammation and overactivation of the adipose renin–angiotensin system (RAS) may contribute to the progression of BC. Clinically used antihypertensive drugs such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) and dietary bioactive components such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are known for their anti-inflammatory and adipose RAS blocking properties. However, whether EPA enhances the protective effects of ACE-I in lessening adipocyte inflammation on BC cells has not been studied. We hypothesized that combined EPA and ACE-I would attenuate BC cell inflammation and migration possibly via adipose RAS inhibition. To test our hypothesis, we examined the (i) direct effects of an ACE-I (captopril (CAP)) or EPA, individually and combined, on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human BC cells, and the (ii) effects of conditioned medium (CM) from human adipocytes pretreated with the abovementioned agents on BC cells. We demonstrated that CM from adipocytes pretreated with EPA with or without captopril (but not direct treatments of BC cells) significantly reduced proinflammatory cytokines expression in both BC cell lines. Additionally, cell migration was reduced in MDA-MB-231 cells in response to both direct and CM-mediated CAP and/or EPA treatments. In summary, our study provides a significant insight into added benefits of combining anti-inflammatory EPA and antihypertensive ACE-I to attenuate the effects of adipocytes on breast cancer cell migration and inflammation. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; breast cancer; renin–angiotensin system; eicosapentaenoic acid; adipocyte inflammation obesity; breast cancer; renin–angiotensin system; eicosapentaenoic acid; adipocyte inflammation
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Rasha, F.; Kahathuduwa, C.; Ramalingam, L.; Hernandez, A.; Moussa, H.; Moustaid-Moussa, N. Combined Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Adipocyte Renin–Angiotensin System Inhibition on Breast Cancer Cell Inflammation and Migration. Cancers 2020, 12, 220.

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