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Tumor Cell Dormancy: Threat or Opportunity in the Fight against Cancer

1
Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 9841, Iran
2
Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 9841, Iran
3
Student Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 9841, Iran
4
Biotechnology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 9841, Iran
5
Department of Microbiology & Immunology, VCU School of Medicine, Massey Cancer Center, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
6
Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 9841, Iran
7
Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Cancer Research, 1090 Vienna, Austria
8
Faculty of Medicine, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw, 01-938 Warsaw, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
The author is no longer in this institution.
Cancers 2019, 11(8), 1207; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11081207
Received: 31 July 2019 / Revised: 11 August 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs))
Tumor dormancy, a clinically undetectable state of cancer, makes a major contribution to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR), minimum residual disease (MRD), tumor outgrowth, cancer relapse, and metastasis. Despite its high incidence, the whole picture of dormancy-regulated molecular programs is far from clear. That is, it is unknown when and which dormant cells will resume proliferation causing late relapse, and which will remain asymptomatic and harmless to their hosts. Thus, identification of dormancy-related culprits and understanding their roles can help predict cancer prognosis and may increase the probability of timely therapeutic intervention for the desired outcome. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the dormancy-dictated molecular mechanisms, including angiogenic switch, immune escape, cancer stem cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, metabolic reprogramming, miRNAs, epigenetic modifications, and stress-induced p38 signaling pathways. Further, we analyze the possibility of leveraging these dormancy-related molecular cues to outmaneuver cancer and discuss the implications of such approaches in cancer treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: tumor dormancy; tumor relapse; tumor escape; metastasis; cancer therapy tumor dormancy; tumor relapse; tumor escape; metastasis; cancer therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jahanban-Esfahlan, R.; Seidi, K.; Manjili, M.H.; Jahanban-Esfahlan, A.; Javaheri, T.; Zare, P. Tumor Cell Dormancy: Threat or Opportunity in the Fight against Cancer. Cancers 2019, 11, 1207.

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