Next Article in Journal
Electrochemotherapy Causes Caspase-Independent Necrotic-Like Death in Pancreatic Cancer Cells
Next Article in Special Issue
Targeting Oncogenic BRAF: Past, Present, and Future
Previous Article in Journal
Multi-Drug/Gene NASH Therapy Delivery and Selective Hyperspectral NIR Imaging Using Chirality-Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Previous Article in Special Issue
Atypical BRAF and NRAS Mutations in Mucosal Melanoma
Open AccessReview

Adaptive Responses as Mechanisms of Resistance to BRAF Inhibitors in Melanoma

Department of Medicine, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
Karolinska University Hospital Solna, 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, Curtin University, Perth 6845, Australia
Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia
Cancer Science Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117599, Singapore
Department of Pharmacology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597, Singapore
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(8), 1176;
Received: 2 July 2019 / Revised: 8 August 2019 / Accepted: 9 August 2019 / Published: 14 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncogenic Forms of BRAF as Cancer Driver Genes)
PDF [2533 KB, uploaded 20 August 2019]
  |     |  


The introduction of v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF) inhibitors in melanoma patients with BRAF (V600E) mutations has demonstrated significant clinical benefits. However, rarely do tumours regress completely. Frequently, the reason for this is that therapies targeting specific oncogenic mutations induce a number of intrinsic compensatory mechanisms, also known as adaptive responses or feedback loops, that enhance the pro-survival and pro-proliferative capacity of a proportion of the original tumour population, thereby resulting in tumour progression. In this review we will summarize the known adaptive responses that limit BRAF mutant therapy and discuss potential novel combinatorial therapies to overcome resistance. View Full-Text
Keywords: BRAF; melanoma; adaptive responses; resistance BRAF; melanoma; adaptive responses; resistance

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Saei, A.; Eichhorn, P.J.A. Adaptive Responses as Mechanisms of Resistance to BRAF Inhibitors in Melanoma. Cancers 2019, 11, 1176.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Cancers EISSN 2072-6694 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top