Next Article in Journal
Prognostic Significance of CT-Attenuation of Tumor-Adjacent Breast Adipose Tissue in Breast Cancer Patients with Surgical Resection
Next Article in Special Issue
Adaptive Responses as Mechanisms of Resistance to BRAF Inhibitors in Melanoma
Previous Article in Journal
HLA Expression in Uveal Melanoma: An Indicator of Malignancy and a Modifiable Immunological Target
Previous Article in Special Issue
Oncogenic BRAF Alterations and Their Role in Brain Tumors
Open AccessReview

Atypical BRAF and NRAS Mutations in Mucosal Melanoma

INSERM, U976, Team 1, Human Immunology Pathophysiology & Immunotherapy (HIPI), F-75010 Paris, France
Institut de Recherche Saint Louis (IRSL), Université de Paris, F-75010 Paris, France
Département de Pharmacogénomique, Hôpital Saint Louis, AP-HP, F-75010 Paris, France
Département de Dermatologie, Hôpital Saint Louis, AP-HP, F-75010 Paris, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(8), 1133;
Received: 5 July 2019 / Revised: 6 August 2019 / Accepted: 7 August 2019 / Published: 8 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncogenic Forms of BRAF as Cancer Driver Genes)
Primary mucosal melanomas represent a minority of melanomas, but have a significantly worse prognosis than cutaneous melanomas. A better characterization of the molecular pathogenesis of this melanoma subtype could help us understand the risk factors associated with the development of mucosal melanomas and highlight therapeutic targets. Because the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathway plays such a significant role in melanoma development, we explore v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF) and neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog (NRAS) mutations in mucosal melanoma and compare them to the mutation profiles in cutaneous melanoma and other tumors with BRAF and NRAS mutations. We show that in addition to being less frequent, BRAF and NRAS mutations are different in mucosal melanoma compared to cutaneous melanomas. Strikingly, the BRAF and NRAS mutation profiles in mucosal melanoma are closer to those found in cancers such as lung cancer, suggesting that mutations in mucosal melanoma could be linked to some genotoxic agents that remain to be identified. We also show that the atypical BRAF and NRAS mutations found in mucosal melanomas have particular effects on protein activities, which could be essential for the transformation of mucosal melanocytes. View Full-Text
Keywords: mucosal melanoma; BRAF; NRAS; mutations; MAPK; targeted therapies mucosal melanoma; BRAF; NRAS; mutations; MAPK; targeted therapies
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Dumaz, N.; Jouenne, F.; Delyon, J.; Mourah, S.; Bensussan, A.; Lebbé, C. Atypical BRAF and NRAS Mutations in Mucosal Melanoma. Cancers 2019, 11, 1133.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop