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NF-κB/Rel Transcription Factors in Pancreatic Cancer: Focusing on RelA, c-Rel, and RelB

1
Internal Medicine II, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 81675 Munich, Germany
2
Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Center, University of Freiburg, 79106 Freiburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(7), 937; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11070937
Received: 8 June 2019 / Revised: 26 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 4 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NF-kappaB signalling pathway)
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Abstract

Regulation of Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)/Rel transcription factors (TFs) is extremely cell-type-specific owing to their ability to act disparately in the context of cellular homeostasis driven by cellular fate and the microenvironment. This is also valid for tumor cells in which every single component shows heterogenic effects. Whereas many studies highlighted a per se oncogenic function for NF-κB/Rel TFs across cancers, recent advances in the field revealed their additional tumor-suppressive nature. Specifically, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), as one of the deadliest malignant diseases, shows aberrant canonical-noncanonical NF-κB signaling activity. Although decades of work suggest a prominent oncogenic activity of NF-κB signaling in PDAC, emerging evidence points to the opposite including anti-tumor effects. Considering the dual nature of NF-κB signaling and how it is closely linked to many other cancer related signaling pathways, it is essential to dissect the roles of individual Rel TFs in pancreatic carcinogenesis and tumor persistency and progression. Here, we discuss recent knowledge highlighting the role of Rel TFs RelA, RelB, and c-Rel in PDAC development and maintenance. Next to providing rationales for therapeutically harnessing Rel TF function in PDAC, we compile strategies currently in (pre-)clinical evaluation. View Full-Text
Keywords: NF-κB; PDAC; pancreatic cancer; RelA; p65; RelB; c-Rel NF-κB; PDAC; pancreatic cancer; RelA; p65; RelB; c-Rel
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Kabacaoglu, D.; Ruess, D.A.; Ai, J.; Algül, H. NF-κB/Rel Transcription Factors in Pancreatic Cancer: Focusing on RelA, c-Rel, and RelB. Cancers 2019, 11, 937.

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