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Integrins: Moonlighting Proteins in Invadosome Formation

Biomarkers and Molecular Signaling Group, Neurodegenerative Diseases Area Center for Biomedical Research of La Rioja, CIBIR, c.p., 26006 Logroño, Spain
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Cancers 2019, 11(5), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11050615
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 28 April 2019 / Published: 2 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Integrins in Cancer)
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Abstract

Invadopodia are actin-rich protrusions developed by transformed cells in 2D/3D environments that are implicated in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and degradation. These structures have an undoubted association with cancer invasion and metastasis because invadopodium formation in vivo is a key step for intra/extravasation of tumor cells. Invadopodia are closely related to other actin-rich structures known as podosomes, which are typical structures of normal cells necessary for different physiological processes during development and organogenesis. Invadopodia and podosomes are included in the general term ‘invadosomes,’ as they both appear as actin puncta on plasma membranes next to extracellular matrix metalloproteinases, although organization, regulation, and function are slightly different. Integrins are transmembrane proteins implicated in cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions and other important processes such as molecular signaling, mechano-transduction, and cell functions, e.g., adhesion, migration, or invasion. It is noteworthy that integrin expression is altered in many tumors, and other pathologies such as cardiovascular or immune dysfunctions. Over the last few years, growing evidence has suggested a role of integrins in the formation of invadopodia. However, their implication in invadopodia formation and adhesion to the ECM is still not well known. This review focuses on the role of integrins in invadopodium formation and provides a general overview of the involvement of these proteins in the mechanisms of metastasis, taking into account classic research through to the latest and most advanced work in the field. View Full-Text
Keywords: integrins; invadopodia; podosome; cancer; signaling; microenvironment; stromal cells; matrix; forces integrins; invadopodia; podosome; cancer; signaling; microenvironment; stromal cells; matrix; forces
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Peláez, R.; Pariente, A.; Pérez-Sala, Á.; Larrayoz, I.M. Integrins: Moonlighting Proteins in Invadosome Formation. Cancers 2019, 11, 615.

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