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An Insight into the Roles of MicroRNAs and Exosomes in Sarcoma

1
Division of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan
2
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showamachi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511, Japan
3
Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo Medical University, 6-1-1 Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8402, Japan
4
Department of Translational Research for Extracellular Vesicles, Tokyo Medical University, 6-1-1 Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8402, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(3), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11030428
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 20 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA-Associated Cancer Metastasis)
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Abstract

Sarcomas are rare solid tumors, but at least one-third of patients with sarcoma die from tumor-related disease. MicroRNA (miRNA) is a noncoding RNA that regulates gene expression in all cells and plays a key role in the progression of cancers. Recently, it was identified that miRNAs are transferred between cells by enclosure in extracellular vesicles, especially exosomes. The exosome is a 100 nm-sized membraned vesicle that is secreted by many kinds of cells and contains miRNA, mRNA, DNA, and proteins. Cancer uses exosomes to influence not only the tumor microenvironment but also the distant organ to create a premetastatic niche. The progression of sarcoma is also regulated by miRNAs and exosomes. These miRNAs and exosomes can be targeted as biomarkers and treatments. In this review, we summarize the studies of miRNA and exosomes in sarcoma. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer; sarcoma; microRNA; exosome; metastasis cancer; sarcoma; microRNA; exosome; metastasis
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Kohama, I.; Kosaka, N.; Chikuda, H.; Ochiya, T. An Insight into the Roles of MicroRNAs and Exosomes in Sarcoma. Cancers 2019, 11, 428.

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