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Recent Advances in Cancer Stem Cell-Targeted Immunotherapy

1
Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan 50612, Korea
2
Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan 50612, Korea
3
BIO-IT Foundry Technology Institute, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(3), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11030310
Received: 28 January 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 1 March 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cancer Stem Cell Research)
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Abstract

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are one of the reasons for the relapse of cancer cells and metastasis. They have drug resistance against most chemotherapeutic agents. CSCs are also responsible for tumor cell heterogeneity and cause minimal residual disease. In order to achieve complete regression of tumors, CSCs have to be targeted. Recent advances in immunotherapies have shown promising outcomes in curing cancer, which are also applicable to target CSCs. CSCs express immune markers and exhibit specific immune characteristics in various cancers, which can be used in immunotherapies to target CSCs in the tumor microenvironment. Recently, various strategies have been used to target CSCs. Adaptive T-cells, dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines, oncolytic viruses, immune checkpoint inhibitors, and combination therapies are now being used to target CSCs. Here, we discuss the feasibility of these immunological approaches and the recent trends in immunotherapies to target CSCs. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer stem cells; immunotherapy; combination therapy cancer stem cells; immunotherapy; combination therapy
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Badrinath, N.; Yoo, S.Y. Recent Advances in Cancer Stem Cell-Targeted Immunotherapy. Cancers 2019, 11, 310.

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