Next Article in Journal
ER Stress and Unfolded Protein Response in Cancer Cachexia
Next Article in Special Issue
Multi-Features Classification of Prostate Carcinoma Observed in Histological Sections: Analysis of Wavelet-Based Texture and Colour Features
Previous Article in Journal
The Anti-Proliferative Activity of the Hybrid TMS-TMF-4f Compound Against Human Cervical Cancer Involves Apoptosis Mediated by STAT3 Inactivation
Previous Article in Special Issue
Automated Gleason Scoring and Tumor Quantification in Prostate Core Needle Biopsy Images Using Deep Neural Networks and Its Comparison with Pathologist-Based Assessment
Open AccessReview

How Prostate Cancer Cells Use Strategy Instead of Brute Force to Achieve Metastasis

Department of Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(12), 1928; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11121928
Received: 25 October 2019 / Revised: 25 November 2019 / Accepted: 27 November 2019 / Published: 3 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prostate Cancer: Past, Present, and Future)
Akin to many other cancers, metastasis is the predominant cause of lethality in prostate cancer (PCa). Research in the past decade or so has revealed that although metastatic manifestation is a multi-step and complex process that is orchestrated by distinct cellular and molecular mechanisms, the process in itself is an extremely inefficient one. It is now becoming increasingly evident that PCa cells employ a plethora of strategies to make the most of this inefficient process. These strategies include priming the metastatic sites ahead of colonization, devising ways to metastasize to specific organs, outsmarting the host defense surveillance, lying in a dormant state at the metastatic site for prolonged periods, and widespread reprogramming of the gene expression to suit their needs. Based on established, recent, and evolving lines of research, this review is an attempt to understand PCa metastasis from the perspective of military combat, wherein strategic maneuvering instead of brute force often plays a decisive role in the outcome.
Keywords: prostate cancer; metastasis; strategies for metastasis; tropism; immune evasion prostate cancer; metastasis; strategies for metastasis; tropism; immune evasion
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Tharp, D.; Nandana, S. How Prostate Cancer Cells Use Strategy Instead of Brute Force to Achieve Metastasis. Cancers 2019, 11, 1928.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop