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Correction published on 13 July 2020, see Cancers 2020, 12(7), 1885.
Open AccessReview

DNA Methylation of Enhancer Elements in Myeloid Neoplasms: Think Outside the Promoters?

by 1,2,†, 1,2,†, 1,2,* and 1,2,3,*
1
Área de Hemato-Oncología, Centro de Investigación Médica Aplicada, IDISNA, Universidad de Navarra, Avenida Pío XII-55, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
2
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer (CIBERONC), 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Departamento de Hematología, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Universidad de Navarra, Avenida Pío XII-36, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Cancers 2019, 11(10), 1424; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11101424
Received: 22 August 2019 / Revised: 15 September 2019 / Accepted: 18 September 2019 / Published: 24 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Dysregulation in Cancer: From Mechanism to Therapy)
Gene regulation through DNA methylation is a well described phenomenon that has a prominent role in physiological and pathological cell-states. This epigenetic modification is usually grouped in regions denominated CpG islands, which frequently co-localize with gene promoters, silencing the transcription of those genes. Recent genome-wide DNA methylation studies have challenged this paradigm, demonstrating that DNA methylation of regulatory regions outside promoters is able to influence cell-type specific gene expression programs under physiologic or pathologic conditions. Coupling genome-wide DNA methylation assays with histone mark annotation has allowed for the identification of specific epigenomic changes that affect enhancer regulatory regions, revealing an additional layer of complexity to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. In this review, we summarize the novel evidence for the molecular and biological regulation of DNA methylation in enhancer regions and the dynamism of these changes contributing to the fine-tuning of gene expression. We also analyze the contribution of enhancer DNA methylation on the expression of relevant genes in acute myeloid leukemia and chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. The characterization of the aberrant enhancer DNA methylation provides not only a novel pathogenic mechanism for different tumors but also highlights novel potential therapeutic targets for myeloid derived neoplasms. View Full-Text
Keywords: DNA methylation; Enhancer regions; myeloid neoplasms; acute myeloid leukemia (AML); myeloproliferative neoplasms DNA methylation; Enhancer regions; myeloid neoplasms; acute myeloid leukemia (AML); myeloproliferative neoplasms
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ordoñez, R.; Martínez-Calle, N.; Agirre, X.; Prosper, F. DNA Methylation of Enhancer Elements in Myeloid Neoplasms: Think Outside the Promoters? Cancers 2019, 11, 1424. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11101424

AMA Style

Ordoñez R, Martínez-Calle N, Agirre X, Prosper F. DNA Methylation of Enhancer Elements in Myeloid Neoplasms: Think Outside the Promoters? Cancers. 2019; 11(10):1424. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11101424

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ordoñez, Raquel; Martínez-Calle, Nicolás; Agirre, Xabier; Prosper, Felipe. 2019. "DNA Methylation of Enhancer Elements in Myeloid Neoplasms: Think Outside the Promoters?" Cancers 11, no. 10: 1424. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11101424

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