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Open AccessReview

Gene-Specific Targeting of DNA Methylation in the Mammalian Genome

1
Department of Pathology, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, 56 Hanover Street, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
2
Maurice Wilkins Centre for Molecular Biodiscovery, 3A Symonds Street, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2019, 11(10), 1515; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11101515
Received: 13 September 2019 / Revised: 2 October 2019 / Accepted: 5 October 2019 / Published: 9 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Dysregulation in Cancer: From Mechanism to Therapy)
DNA methylation is the most widely-studied epigenetic modification, playing a critical role in the regulation of gene expression. Dysregulation of DNA methylation is implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. For example, aberrant DNA methylation in promoter regions of tumor-suppressor genes has been strongly associated with the development and progression of many different tumors. Accordingly, technologies designed to manipulate DNA methylation at specific genomic loci are very important, especially in the context of cancer therapy. Traditionally, epigenomic editing technologies have centered around zinc finger proteins (ZFP)- and transcription activator-like effector protein (TALE)-based targeting. More recently, however, the emergence of clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-deactivated Cas9 (dCas9)-based editing systems have shown to be a more specific and efficient method for the targeted manipulation of DNA methylation. Here, we describe the regulation of the DNA methylome, its significance in cancer and the current state of locus-specific editing technologies for altering DNA methylation. View Full-Text
Keywords: DNA methylation; cancer; CRISPR; editing; epigenetics DNA methylation; cancer; CRISPR; editing; epigenetics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Urbano, A.; Smith, J.; Weeks, R.J.; Chatterjee, A. Gene-Specific Targeting of DNA Methylation in the Mammalian Genome. Cancers 2019, 11, 1515.

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