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Cancers 2018, 10(6), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10060182

Cancer Metastases to Bone: Concepts, Mechanisms, and Interactions with Bone Osteoblasts

Department of Cancer Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Received: 4 April 2018 / Revised: 29 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeting Bone Metastasis in Cancer)
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Abstract

The skeleton is a unique structure capable of providing support for the body. Bone resorption and deposition are controlled in a tightly regulated balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts with no net bone gain or loss. However, under conditions of disease, the balance between bone resorption and deposition is upset. Osteoblasts play an important role in bone homeostasis by depositing new bone osteoid into resorption pits. It is becoming increasingly evident that osteoblasts additionally play key roles in cancer cell dissemination to bone and subsequent metastasis. Our laboratory has evidence that when osteoblasts come into contact with disseminated breast cancer cells, the osteoblasts produce factors that initially reduce breast cancer cell proliferation, yet promote cancer cell survival in bone. Other laboratories have demonstrated that osteoblasts both directly and indirectly contribute to dormant cancer cell reactivation in bone. Moreover, we have demonstrated that osteoblasts undergo an inflammatory stress response in late stages of breast cancer, and produce inflammatory cytokines that are maintenance and survival factors for breast cancer cells and osteoclasts. Advances in understanding interactions between osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and bone metastatic cancer cells will aid in controlling and ultimately preventing cancer cell metastasis to bone. View Full-Text
Keywords: osteoblast; osteoclast; metastasis; breast cancer; prostate cancer; multiple myeloma; bone; dormancy; re-activation; osteomimicry osteoblast; osteoclast; metastasis; breast cancer; prostate cancer; multiple myeloma; bone; dormancy; re-activation; osteomimicry
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Shupp, A.B.; Kolb, A.D.; Mukhopadhyay, D.; Bussard, K.M. Cancer Metastases to Bone: Concepts, Mechanisms, and Interactions with Bone Osteoblasts. Cancers 2018, 10, 182.

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