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Cancers 2018, 10(6), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10060176

Emerging and Established Models of Bone Metastasis

1
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
2
Department of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
3
Wake Forest Baptist Comprehensive Cancer Center, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
4
Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeting Bone Metastasis in Cancer)
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Abstract

Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related death and drives patient morbidity as well as healthcare costs. Bone is the primary site of metastasis for several cancers—breast and prostate cancers in particular. Efforts to treat bone metastases have been stymied by a lack of models to study the progression, cellular players, and signaling pathways driving bone metastasis. In this review, we examine newly described and classic models of bone metastasis. Through the use of current in vivo, microfluidic, and in silico computational bone metastasis models we may eventually understand how cells escape the primary tumor and how these circulating tumor cells then home to and colonize the bone marrow. Further, future models may uncover how cells enter and then escape dormancy to develop into overt metastases. Recreating the metastatic process will lead to the discovery of therapeutic targets for disrupting and treating bone metastasis. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone metastasis; tissue engineering; mesenchymal stem cells; osteoclast; osteoblast; dormancy; mouse models; circulating tumor cell bone metastasis; tissue engineering; mesenchymal stem cells; osteoclast; osteoblast; dormancy; mouse models; circulating tumor cell
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Jinnah, A.H.; Zacks, B.C.; Gwam, C.U.; Kerr, B.A. Emerging and Established Models of Bone Metastasis. Cancers 2018, 10, 176.

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