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Micromachines 2018, 9(11), 565;

Oriented Carbon Nanostructures by Plasma Processing: Recent Advances and Future Challenges

Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049 Lisboa, Portugal
Plasma Laboratory, National Aerospace University, Kharkov, Ukraine
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan
School of Chemistry, Physics, and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology QUT, Brisbane, Australia
CSIRO-QUT Joint Sustainable Processes and Devices Laboratory, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 26 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma-Based Surface Engineering)
PDF [5398 KB, uploaded 1 November 2018]


Carbon, one of the most abundant materials, is very attractive for many applications because it exists in a variety of forms based on dimensions, such as zero-dimensional (0D), one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), and-three dimensional (3D). Carbon nanowall (CNW) is a vertically-oriented 2D form of a graphene-like structure with open boundaries, sharp edges, nonstacking morphology, large interlayer spacing, and a huge surface area. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is widely used for the large-scale synthesis and functionalization of carbon nanowalls (CNWs) with different types of plasma activation. Plasma-enhanced techniques open up possibilities to improve the structure and morphology of CNWs by controlling the plasma discharge parameters. Plasma-assisted surface treatment on CNWs improves their stability against structural degradation and surface chemistry with enhanced electrical and chemical properties. These advantages broaden the applications of CNWs in electrochemical energy storage devices, catalysis, and electronic devices and sensing devices to extremely thin black body coatings. However, the controlled growth of CNWs for specific applications remains a challenge. In these aspects, this review discusses the growth of CNWs using different plasma activation, the influence of various plasma-discharge parameters, and plasma-assisted surface treatment techniques for tailoring the properties of CNWs. The challenges and possibilities of CNW-related research are also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon nanostructures; carbon nanowall; graphene nanowall; plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition carbon nanostructures; carbon nanowall; graphene nanowall; plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Santhosh, N.M.; Filipič, G.; Tatarova, E.; Baranov, O.; Kondo, H.; Sekine, M.; Hori, M.; Ostrikov, K.K.; Cvelbar, U. Oriented Carbon Nanostructures by Plasma Processing: Recent Advances and Future Challenges. Micromachines 2018, 9, 565.

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