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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Tissue-Engineered Models for Glaucoma Research

by Renhao Lu 1, Paul A. Soden 2 and Esak Lee 1,*
1
Nancy E. and Peter C. Meinig School of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
2
College of Human Ecology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Micromachines 2020, 11(6), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11060612
Received: 5 June 2020 / Revised: 21 June 2020 / Accepted: 22 June 2020 / Published: 24 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanobiology and Biologically Inspired Engineering)
Glaucoma is a group of optic neuropathies characterized by the progressive degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Patients with glaucoma generally experience elevations in intraocular pressure (IOP), followed by RGC death, peripheral vision loss and eventually blindness. However, despite the substantial economic and health-related impact of glaucoma-related morbidity worldwide, the surgical and pharmacological management of glaucoma is still limited to maintaining IOP within a normal range. This is in large part because the underlying molecular and biophysical mechanisms by which glaucomatous changes occur are still unclear. In the present review article, we describe current tissue-engineered models of the intraocular space that aim to advance the state of glaucoma research. Specifically, we critically evaluate and compare both 2D and 3D-culture models of the trabecular meshwork and nerve fiber layer, both of which are key players in glaucoma pathophysiology. Finally, we point out the need for novel organ-on-a-chip models of glaucoma that functionally integrate currently available 3D models of the retina and the trabecular outflow pathway. View Full-Text
Keywords: glaucoma; tissue engineering; trabecular meshwork; Schlemm’s canal; retinal ganglion cell; intraocular pressure; optic nerve head; electrospinning; soft lithography; 3D scaffold; 3D bioprinting glaucoma; tissue engineering; trabecular meshwork; Schlemm’s canal; retinal ganglion cell; intraocular pressure; optic nerve head; electrospinning; soft lithography; 3D scaffold; 3D bioprinting
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Lu, R.; Soden, P.A.; Lee, E. Tissue-Engineered Models for Glaucoma Research. Micromachines 2020, 11, 612.

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