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Open AccessArticle

Methacrylate Coatings for Titanium Surfaces to Optimize Biocompatibility

by Argus Sun 1,2,3,*, Nureddin Ashammakhi 1,3,4,5 and Mehmet R. Dokmeci 1,2,3,4,5
1
Center for Minimally Invasive Therapeutics (C-MIT), University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
2
Eidolon Hydros, Buena Park, CA 90622, USA
3
Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
4
California Nanosystems Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
5
Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This paper is an extended version of our poster presented at the 7th annual Micro- and Nanotechnologies for Medicine: Emerging Frontiers and Applications Workshop (MNM 2019), Los Angeles, CA, USA, 8–12 July 2019.
Micromachines 2020, 11(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11010087
Received: 16 December 2019 / Revised: 1 January 2020 / Accepted: 2 January 2020 / Published: 13 January 2020
Currently, there are more than 1.5 million knee and hip replacement procedures carried out in the United States. Implants have a 10–15-year lifespan with up to 30% of revision surgeries showing complications with osteomyelitis. Titanium and titanium alloys are the favored implant materials because they are lightweight and have high mechanical strength. However, this increased strength can be associated with decreased bone density around the implant, leading to implant loosening and failure. To avoid this, current strategies include plasma-spraying titanium surfaces and foaming titanium. Both techniques give the titanium a rough and irregular finish that improves biocompatibility. Recently, researchers have also sought to surface-conjugate proteins to titanium to induce osteointegration. Cell adhesion-promoting proteins can be conjugated to methacrylate groups and crosslinked using a variety of methods. Methacrylated proteins can be conjugated to titanium surfaces through atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). However, surface conjugation of proteins increases biocompatibility non-specifically to bone cells, adding to the risk of biofouling which may result in osteomyelitis that causes implant failure. In this work, we analyze the factors contributing to biofouling when coating titanium to improve biocompatibility, and design an experimental scheme to evaluate optimal coating parameters. View Full-Text
Keywords: titanium coating; implanted medical devices; biomaterials; surface chemistry; chemical descriptors; machine learning titanium coating; implanted medical devices; biomaterials; surface chemistry; chemical descriptors; machine learning
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Sun, A.; Ashammakhi, N.; Dokmeci, M.R. Methacrylate Coatings for Titanium Surfaces to Optimize Biocompatibility. Micromachines 2020, 11, 87.

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