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Open AccessArticle

Fabrication of Tapered Circular Depressed-Cladding Waveguides in Nd:YAG Crystal by Femtosecond-Laser Direct Inscription

1
Aplicaciones del Láser y Fotónica, Universidad de Salamanca, Pl. La Merced SN, 37008 Salamanca, Spain
2
Spanish Center for Pulsed Lasers, M5 Bldg. Science Park, Villamayor, 37185 Salamanca, Spain
3
School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Micromachines 2020, 11(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11010010
Received: 18 November 2019 / Revised: 12 December 2019 / Accepted: 17 December 2019 / Published: 19 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Femtosecond Laser Micromachining for Photonics Applications)
Crystalline materials are excellent substrates for the integration of compact photonic devices benefiting from the unique optical properties of these materials. The technique of direct inscription with femtosecond lasers, as an advantage over other techniques, has opened the door to the fabrication of true three-dimensional (3D) photonic devices in almost any transparent substrate. Depressed-cladding waveguides have been demonstrated to be an excellent and versatile platform for the integration of 3D photonic circuits in crystals. Here, we present the technique that we have developed to inscribe tapered depressed-cladding waveguides with a circular section for the control of the modal behavior. As a proof of concept, we have applied the technique to fabricate structures in Nd:YAG crystal that efficiently change the modal behavior from highly multimodal to monomodal, in the visible and near infrared, with reduction factors in the waveguide radius of up to 4:1. Our results are interesting for different devices such as waveguide lasers, frequency converters or connectors between external devices with different core sizes. View Full-Text
Keywords: femtosecond lasers; micro-processing; photonic device; crystalline dielectrics; waveguide femtosecond lasers; micro-processing; photonic device; crystalline dielectrics; waveguide
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MDPI and ACS Style

Romero, C.; García Ajates, J.; Chen, F.; Vázquez de Aldana, J.R. Fabrication of Tapered Circular Depressed-Cladding Waveguides in Nd:YAG Crystal by Femtosecond-Laser Direct Inscription. Micromachines 2020, 11, 10.

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