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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

The Applications of 3D Printing for Craniofacial Tissue Engineering

McGill Craniofacial Tissue Engineering and Stem Cells Laboratory, Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University, 3640 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 0C7, Canada
Department of Bioengineering, McGill University, 817 Sherbrook Street West, Montreal, QC H3A 0C3, Canada
Department of Orthodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, 56 Lingyuan Road West, Guangzhou 510055, China
Oral Pathology Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Mansoura 22123, Egypt
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Micromachines 2019, 10(7), 480;
Received: 20 June 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 17 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine)
PDF [2183 KB, uploaded 17 July 2019]


Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology in the field of dentistry. It uses a layer-by-layer manufacturing technique to create scaffolds that can be used for dental tissue engineering applications. While several 3D printing methodologies exist, such as selective laser sintering or fused deposition modeling, this paper will review the applications of 3D printing for craniofacial tissue engineering; in particular for the periodontal complex, dental pulp, alveolar bone, and cartilage. For the periodontal complex, a 3D printed scaffold was attempted to treat a periodontal defect; for dental pulp, hydrogels were created that can support an odontoblastic cell line; for bone and cartilage, a polycaprolactone scaffold with microspheres induced the formation of multiphase fibrocartilaginous tissues. While the current research highlights the development and potential of 3D printing, more research is required to fully understand this technology and for its incorporation into the dental field. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D printing; additive manufacturing; bioprinting; dentistry; oral and maxillofacial regions; tissue engineering 3D printing; additive manufacturing; bioprinting; dentistry; oral and maxillofacial regions; tissue engineering

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Tao, O.; Kort-Mascort, J.; Lin, Y.; Pham, H.M.; Charbonneau, A.M.; ElKashty, O.A.; Kinsella, J.M.; Tran, S.D. The Applications of 3D Printing for Craniofacial Tissue Engineering. Micromachines 2019, 10, 480.

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