Crop diseases cause great harm to food security, 90% of these are caused by fungal spores. This paper proposes a crop diseases spore detection method, based on the lensfree diffraction fingerprint and microfluidic chip. The spore diffraction images are obtained by a designed large field of view lensless diffraction detection platform which contains the spore enrichment microfluidic chip and lensless imaging module. By using the microfluidic chip to enrich and isolate spores in advance, the required particles can be captured in the chip enrichment area, and other impurities can be filtered to reduce the interference of impurities on spore detection. The light source emits partially coherent light and irradiates the target to generate diffraction fingerprints, which can be used to distinguish spores and impurities. According to the theoretical analysis, two parameters, Peak to Center ratio (PCR) and Peak to Valley ratio (PVR), are found to quantify these spores. The correlation coefficient between the detection results of rice blast spores by the constructed device and the results of microscopic artificial identification was up to 0.99, and the average error rate of the proposed device was only 5.91%. The size of the device is only 4 cm × 4 cm × 5 cm, and the cost is less than $150, which is one thousandth of the existing equipment. Therefore, it may be widely used as an early detection method for crop disease caused by spores.
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