Controlled fabrication of 45 nm width nanowire using simulated emission depletion (STED) direct laser writing with a rod-shape effective focus spot is presented. In conventional STED direct laser writing, normally a donut-shaped depletion focus is used, and the minimum linewidth is restricted to 55 nm. In this work, we push this limit to sub-50 nm dimension with a rod-shape effective focus spot, which is the combination of a Gaussian excitation focus and twin-oval depletion focus. Effects of photoinitiator type, excitation laser power, and depletion laser power on the width of the nanowire are explored, respectively. Single nanowire with 45 nm width is obtained, which is λ/18 of excitation wavelength and the minimum linewidth in pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA) photoresist. Our result accelerates the progress of achievable linewidth reduction in STED direct laser writing.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited