Peptide nanotechnology has experienced a long and enduring development since its inception. Many different applications have been conceptualized, which depends on the functional groups present on the peptide and the physical shape/size of the peptide nanostructures. One of the most prominent nanostructures formed by peptides are nanoparticles. Until recently, however, it has been challenging to engineer peptide nanoparticles with low dispersity. An emerging and promising technique involves the utility of microfluidics to produce a solution of peptide nanoparticles with narrow dispersity. In this process, two or more streams of liquid are focused together to create conditions that are conducive towards the formation of narrowly dispersed samples of peptide nanoparticles. This makes it possible to harness peptide nanoparticles for the myriad of applications that are dependent on nanoparticle size and uniformity. In this focus review, we aim to show how microfluidics may be utilized to (1) study peptide self-assembly, which is critical to controlling nanostructure shape and size, and peptide-interface interactions, and (2) generate self-assembling peptide-based microgels for miniaturized cell cultures. These examples will illustrate how the emerging microfluidic approach promises to revolutionize the production and application of peptide nanoparticles in ever more diverse fields than before.
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