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Toxins 2016, 8(2), 45;

Mycotoxin Contamination in the EU Feed Supply Chain: A Focus on Cereal Byproducts

Department of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Trentacoste, 2, 20134 Milan, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paola Battilani
Received: 1 October 2015 / Revised: 28 January 2016 / Accepted: 4 February 2016 / Published: 15 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Understanding Mycotoxin Occurrence in Food and Feed Chains)
PDF [827 KB, uploaded 15 February 2016]


Mycotoxins represent a risk to the feed supply chain with an impact on economies and international trade. A high percentage of feed samples have been reported to be contaminated with more than one mycotoxin. In most cases, the concentrations were low enough to ensure compliance with the European Union (EU) guidance values or maximum admitted levels. However, mycotoxin co-contamination might still exert adverse effects on animals due to additive/synergistic interactions. Studies on the fate of mycotoxins during cereal processing, such as milling, production of ethanol fuels, and beer brewing, have shown that mycotoxins are concentrated into fractions that are commonly used as animal feed. Published data show a high variability in mycotoxin repartitioning, mainly due to the type of mycotoxins, the level and extent of fungal contamination, and a failure to understand the complexity of food processing technologies. Precise knowledge of mycotoxin repartitioning during technological processes is critical and may provide a sound technical basis for feed managers to conform to legislation requirements and reduce the risk of severe adverse market and trade repercussions. Regular, economical and straightforward feed testing is critical to reach a quick and accurate diagnosis of feed quality. The use of rapid methods represents a future challenge. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; feed; food processing; milling byproducts; DDGS; brewery byproducts; analysis mycotoxins; feed; food processing; milling byproducts; DDGS; brewery byproducts; analysis

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Pinotti, L.; Ottoboni, M.; Giromini, C.; Dell’Orto, V.; Cheli, F. Mycotoxin Contamination in the EU Feed Supply Chain: A Focus on Cereal Byproducts. Toxins 2016, 8, 45.

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