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Occurrence of 26 Mycotoxins in the Grain of Cereals Cultivated in Poland

Department of Food Analysis, Prof. Waclaw Dabrowski Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology, Rakowiecka 36, 02-532 Warsaw, Poland
Department of Chemistry, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 75, 60-625 Poznań, Poland
Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute, Department of Cereal Crop Production, Czartoryskich 8, 24-100 Puławy, Poland
Department of Poultry Science, University of Life Sciences, Ciszewskiego 8, 02-786 Warsaw, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paola Battilani
Toxins 2016, 8(6), 160;
Received: 31 March 2016 / Revised: 16 May 2016 / Accepted: 19 May 2016 / Published: 25 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Understanding Mycotoxin Occurrence in Food and Feed Chains)
PDF [1791 KB, uploaded 25 May 2016]


The levels of 26 mycotoxins were determined in 147 samples of the grain of cereals cultivated in five regions of Poland during the 2014 growing season. The HPLC-HRMS (time-of-flight) analytical technique was used. An analytical procedure to simultaneously determine 26 mycotoxins in grain was developed, tested and verified. Samples from eastern and southern Poland were more contaminated with mycotoxins than the samples from northern and western Poland. Toxins produced by Fusarium fungi were the main contaminants found. Some deoxynivalenol (DON) was found in 100% of the tested samples of wheat (Osiny, Borusowa, Werbkowice), triticale, winter barley and oats, while the maximum permissible DON level (as defined in the EU Commission Regulation No. 1881/2006) was exceeded in 10 samples. Zearalenone (ZEN), DON metabolites and enniatins were also commonly found. The presence of mycotoxins in grain reflected the prevailing weather conditions during the plant flowering/earing stages, which were favorable for the development of blight. Among all investigated wheat genotypes, cv. Fidelius was the least contaminated, while Bamberka, Forkida and Kampana were the most contaminated. However, the single-factor ANOVA analysis of variance did not reveal (at a statistical significance level α = 0.05) any differences between levels of mycotoxins in individual genotypes. Triticale was the most contaminated grain among all of the tested varieties. ZEN, DON and the sum of 3-acetyldexynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3- and 15-ADON) were found in 100% of the tested triticale samples at concentrations within the 4–86, 196–1326 and 36–374 µg·kg−1 range, respectively. Of particular concern was the fact that some “emerging mycotoxins” (enniatins) (in addition to commonly-known and legally-regulated mycotoxins) were also found in the tested triticale samples (enniatin B (Enn-B), enniatin B1 (Enn-B1), enniatin A-1 (Enn-A1), 100% of samples, and enniatin A (Enn-A), 70% of samples). Depending on the toxin, they were found at levels between 8 and 3328 µg·kg−1. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; grain; LC-TOF-HRMS; weather conditions; Fusarium mycotoxins; grain; LC-TOF-HRMS; weather conditions; Fusarium

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Bryła, M.; Waśkiewicz, A.; Podolska, G.; Szymczyk, K.; Jędrzejczak, R.; Damaziak, K.; Sułek, A. Occurrence of 26 Mycotoxins in the Grain of Cereals Cultivated in Poland. Toxins 2016, 8, 160.

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