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Article

Modification of Deoxynivalenol by a Fungal Laccase Paired with Redox Mediator TEMPO

1
Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, 80138 Naples, Italy
2
National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Peoria, IL 61604, USA
3
Plains Area Office, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Fort Collins, CO 80526, USA
4
Department of Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080548
Received: 12 July 2022 / Revised: 5 August 2022 / Accepted: 9 August 2022 / Published: 11 August 2022
Mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol introduce a health risk to the food supply and are costly to manage or avoid. Technologies for reducing or eliminating the toxicity of deoxynivalenol could be useful in a variety of processes, such as in preserving the value as animal feed of byproducts of ethanol production. We characterized transformation products of deoxynivalenol that were formed by the combination of a fungal laccase paired with the chemical mediator 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO), using chromatography, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Alcohol groups at the C3 and C15 positions of deoxynivalenol were oxidized to ketones, and the chemical mediator became covalently linked to the C4 position. Conditions experienced during gas chromatography led to the dissociation of TEMPO, forming 3,15-diketodeoxynivalenol. Understanding the range of possible modifications to deoxynivalenol and other trichothecenes is a necessary step toward effective remediation of contaminated grain. View Full-Text
Keywords: deoxynivalenol; laccase; mycotoxin; trichothecene deoxynivalenol; laccase; mycotoxin; trichothecene
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shanakhat, H.; McCormick, S.P.; Busman, M.; Rich, J.O.; Bakker, M.G. Modification of Deoxynivalenol by a Fungal Laccase Paired with Redox Mediator TEMPO. Toxins 2022, 14, 548. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080548

AMA Style

Shanakhat H, McCormick SP, Busman M, Rich JO, Bakker MG. Modification of Deoxynivalenol by a Fungal Laccase Paired with Redox Mediator TEMPO. Toxins. 2022; 14(8):548. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080548

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shanakhat, Hina, Susan P. McCormick, Mark Busman, Joseph O. Rich, and Matthew G. Bakker. 2022. "Modification of Deoxynivalenol by a Fungal Laccase Paired with Redox Mediator TEMPO" Toxins 14, no. 8: 548. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080548

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