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Article

Clinical Effects of the Immunization Protocol Using Loxosceles Venom in Naïve Horses

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Department of Veterinary Clinics and Surgery, Veterinary College, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 30123-970, MG, Brazil
2
Department of Health of the State of Paraná, Production and Research Center of Immunobiologicals, Piraquara 80230-140, PR, Brazil
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Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, MG, Brazil
4
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary College, Federal University of Goiás, Campus Samambaia, Goiânia 74690-900, GO, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2022, 14(5), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14050338
Received: 19 April 2022 / Revised: 9 May 2022 / Accepted: 12 May 2022 / Published: 13 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
Bites of brown spiders (Loxosceles spp.) are responsible for dermonecrotic lesions and potentially systemic envenoming that can lead to death. The only effective therapy is the use of the antivenom, usually produced in horses. However, little is known about the consequences of the systematic use of the Loxosceles venom and adjuvants and of the bleedings on antivenom-producing horses. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical changes in horses in their first immunization protocol for Loxosceles antivenom production. Eleven healthy horses, never immunized, were evaluated in three different periods: T0 (before immunization); T1 (after their first venom immunization); and T2 (after their first bleeding). Horses were clinically evaluated, sampled for blood, and underwent electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings. Several suppurated subcutaneous abscesses occurred due to the use of Freund’s adjuvants and thrombophlebitis due to systematic venipunctures for the bleeding procedures. ECG showed arrhythmias in few horses in T2, such as an increase in T and R waves. In summary, the immunization protocol impacted on horses’ health, especially after bleeding for antivenom procurement. View Full-Text
Keywords: antisera production; brown spider; dermonecrosis; loxoscelism; safety evaluation antisera production; brown spider; dermonecrosis; loxoscelism; safety evaluation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Miranda, A.L.S.d.; Antunes, B.C.; Minozzo, J.C.; Lima, S.d.A.; Botelho, A.F.M.; Campos, M.T.G.; Chávez-Olórtegui, C.D.; Soto-Blanco, B. Clinical Effects of the Immunization Protocol Using Loxosceles Venom in Naïve Horses. Toxins 2022, 14, 338. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14050338

AMA Style

Miranda ALSd, Antunes BC, Minozzo JC, Lima SdA, Botelho AFM, Campos MTG, Chávez-Olórtegui CD, Soto-Blanco B. Clinical Effects of the Immunization Protocol Using Loxosceles Venom in Naïve Horses. Toxins. 2022; 14(5):338. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14050338

Chicago/Turabian Style

Miranda, Ana L.S.d., Bruno C. Antunes, João C. Minozzo, Sabrina d.A. Lima, Ana F.M. Botelho, Marco T.G. Campos, Carlos D. Chávez-Olórtegui, and Benito Soto-Blanco. 2022. "Clinical Effects of the Immunization Protocol Using Loxosceles Venom in Naïve Horses" Toxins 14, no. 5: 338. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14050338

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