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Review

Citrinin Mycotoxin Contamination in Food and Feed: Impact on Agriculture, Human Health, and Detection and Management Strategies

1
Applied Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Forestry, North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology, Nirjuli 791109, India
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CASS Food Research Centre, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood 3125, Australia
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Department of Dairy Science and Food Technology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India
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Food Customization Research Laboratory, Centre for Rural Development and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016, India
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Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, GLA University, Mathura 281406, India
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Department of Dairy Technology, College of Dairy Science and Technology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar 125004, India
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Centre for Protected Cultivation Technology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa Campus, New Delhi 110012, India
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Division of Food Science and Post-Harvest Technology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012, India
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Technology Transfer Division, ICAR-Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology, Mumbai 400019, India
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Chemical and Biochemical Processing Division, ICAR—Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology, Mumbai 400019, India
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Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, India
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Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2022, 14(2), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14020085
Received: 5 November 2021 / Revised: 14 January 2022 / Accepted: 18 January 2022 / Published: 23 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxic Effect of Mycotoxins)
Citrinin (CIT) is a mycotoxin produced by different species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus. CIT can contaminate a wide range of foods and feeds at any time during the pre-harvest, harvest, and post-harvest stages. CIT can be usually found in beans, fruits, fruit and vegetable juices, herbs and spices, and dairy products, as well as red mold rice. CIT exerts nephrotoxic and genotoxic effects in both humans and animals, thereby raising concerns regarding the consumption of CIT-contaminated food and feed. Hence, to minimize the risk of CIT contamination in food and feed, understanding the incidence of CIT occurrence, its sources, and biosynthetic pathways could assist in the effective implementation of detection and mitigation measures. Therefore, this review aims to shed light on sources of CIT, its prevalence in food and feed, biosynthetic pathways, and genes involved, with a major focus on detection and management strategies to ensure the safety and security of food and feed. View Full-Text
Keywords: citrinin; food and feed contamination; human health; detection and management strategies citrinin; food and feed contamination; human health; detection and management strategies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kamle, M.; Mahato, D.K.; Gupta, A.; Pandhi, S.; Sharma, N.; Sharma, B.; Mishra, S.; Arora, S.; Selvakumar, R.; Saurabh, V.; Dhakane-Lad, J.; Kumar, M.; Barua, S.; Kumar, A.; Gamlath, S.; Kumar, P. Citrinin Mycotoxin Contamination in Food and Feed: Impact on Agriculture, Human Health, and Detection and Management Strategies. Toxins 2022, 14, 85. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14020085

AMA Style

Kamle M, Mahato DK, Gupta A, Pandhi S, Sharma N, Sharma B, Mishra S, Arora S, Selvakumar R, Saurabh V, Dhakane-Lad J, Kumar M, Barua S, Kumar A, Gamlath S, Kumar P. Citrinin Mycotoxin Contamination in Food and Feed: Impact on Agriculture, Human Health, and Detection and Management Strategies. Toxins. 2022; 14(2):85. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14020085

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kamle, Madhu, Dipendra K. Mahato, Akansha Gupta, Shikha Pandhi, Nitya Sharma, Bharti Sharma, Sadhna Mishra, Shalini Arora, Raman Selvakumar, Vivek Saurabh, Jyoti Dhakane-Lad, Manoj Kumar, Sreejani Barua, Arvind Kumar, Shirani Gamlath, and Pradeep Kumar. 2022. "Citrinin Mycotoxin Contamination in Food and Feed: Impact on Agriculture, Human Health, and Detection and Management Strategies" Toxins 14, no. 2: 85. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14020085

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