Next Article in Journal
Pharmaceutical Assessment Suggests Locomotion Hyperactivity in Zebrafish Triggered by Arecoline Might Be Associated with Multiple Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors Activation
Next Article in Special Issue
Is the Cyanobacterial Bloom Composition Shifting Due to Climate Forcing or Nutrient Changes? Example of a Shallow Eutrophic Reservoir
Previous Article in Journal
Composition and Acute Inflammatory Response from Tetraponera rufonigra Venom on RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Potentially Toxic Planktic and Benthic Cyanobacteria in Slovenian Freshwater Bodies: Detection by Quantitative PCR
Article

Cyanotoxin Screening in BACA Culture Collection: Identification of New Cylindrospermopsin Producing Cyanobacteria

1
CIBIO, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, InBIO Laboratório Associado, Pólo dos Açores, Universidade dos Açores, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada, Portugal
2
Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade dos Açores, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada, Portugal
3
Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research—CIIMAR/CIMAR, University of Porto, Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Av. General Norton de Matos s/n, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
4
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, 4069-007 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2021, 13(4), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13040258
Received: 8 February 2021 / Revised: 1 April 2021 / Accepted: 1 April 2021 / Published: 3 April 2021
Microcystins (MCs), Saxitoxins (STXs), and Cylindrospermopsins (CYNs) are some of the more well-known cyanotoxins. Taking into consideration the impacts of cyanotoxins, many studies have focused on the identification of unknown cyanotoxin(s)-producing strains. This study aimed to screen strains from the Azorean Bank of Algae and Cyanobacteria (BACA) for MCs, STX, and CYN production. A total of 157 strains were searched for mcy, sxt, and cyr producing genes by PCR, toxin identification by ESI-LC-MS/MS, and cyanotoxin-producing strains morphological identification and confirmation by 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis. Cyanotoxin-producing genes were amplified in 13 strains and four were confirmed as toxin producers by ESI-LC-MS/MS. As expected Aphanizomenon gracile BACA0041 was confirmed as an STX producer, with amplification of genes sxtA, sxtG, sxtH, and sxtI, and Microcystis aeruginosa BACA0148 as an MC-LR producer, with amplification of genes mcyC, mcyD, mcyE, and mcyG. Two nostocalean strains, BACA0025 and BACA0031, were positive for both cyrB and cyrC genes and ESI-LC-MS/MS confirmed CYN production. Although these strains morphologically resemble Sphaerospermopsis, the 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis reveals that they probably belong to a new genus. View Full-Text
Keywords: microcystin; saxitoxin; cylindrospermopsin; ESI-LC-MS/MS; 16S rRNA phylogeny; Azores microcystin; saxitoxin; cylindrospermopsin; ESI-LC-MS/MS; 16S rRNA phylogeny; Azores
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Cordeiro, R.; Azevedo, J.; Luz, R.; Vasconcelos, V.; Gonçalves, V.; Fonseca, A. Cyanotoxin Screening in BACA Culture Collection: Identification of New Cylindrospermopsin Producing Cyanobacteria. Toxins 2021, 13, 258. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13040258

AMA Style

Cordeiro R, Azevedo J, Luz R, Vasconcelos V, Gonçalves V, Fonseca A. Cyanotoxin Screening in BACA Culture Collection: Identification of New Cylindrospermopsin Producing Cyanobacteria. Toxins. 2021; 13(4):258. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13040258

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cordeiro, Rita, Joana Azevedo, Rúben Luz, Vitor Vasconcelos, Vítor Gonçalves, and Amélia Fonseca. 2021. "Cyanotoxin Screening in BACA Culture Collection: Identification of New Cylindrospermopsin Producing Cyanobacteria" Toxins 13, no. 4: 258. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13040258

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop