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First Evidence of the Toxin Domoic Acid in Antarctic Diatom Species

Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5, 1353 Copenhagen K, Denmark
The Arctic University Museum of Norway, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Lars Thørings veg 10, 9006 Tromsø, Norway
Ökologische Chemie, Alfred Wegener Institut-Helmholtz Zentrum für Polar-und Meeresforschung, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany
Department of Phycology, Faculty of Biology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitätsstrasse 2, 45141 Essen, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2021, 13(2), 93;
Received: 31 December 2020 / Revised: 18 January 2021 / Accepted: 22 January 2021 / Published: 26 January 2021
The Southern Ocean is one of the most productive ecosystems in the world. It is an area heavily dependent on marine primary production and serving as a feeding ground for numerous seabirds and marine mammals. Therefore, the phytoplankton composition and presence of toxic species are of crucial importance. Fifteen monoclonal strains of Pseudo-nitzschia subcurvata, a diatom species endemic to the Southern Ocean, were established, which were characterized by morphological and molecular data and then analysed for toxin content. The neurotoxins domoic acid and iso-domoic acid C were present in three of the strains, which is a finding that represents the first evidence of these toxins in strains from Antarctic waters. Toxic phytoplankton in Antarctic waters are still largely unexplored, and their effects on the ecosystem are not well understood. Considering P. subcurvata’s prevalence throughout the Southern Ocean, these results highlight the need for further investigations of the harmful properties on the Antarctic phytoplankton community as well as the presence of the toxins in the Antarctic food web, especially in the light of a changing climate. View Full-Text
Keywords: Antarctic; Domoic Acid; Iso-Domoic acid; HAB; Southern Ocean Antarctic; Domoic Acid; Iso-Domoic acid; HAB; Southern Ocean
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MDPI and ACS Style

Olesen, A.J.; Leithoff, A.; Altenburger, A.; Krock, B.; Beszteri, B.; Eggers, S.L.; Lundholm, N. First Evidence of the Toxin Domoic Acid in Antarctic Diatom Species. Toxins 2021, 13, 93.

AMA Style

Olesen AJ, Leithoff A, Altenburger A, Krock B, Beszteri B, Eggers SL, Lundholm N. First Evidence of the Toxin Domoic Acid in Antarctic Diatom Species. Toxins. 2021; 13(2):93.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Olesen, Anna J., Anneliese Leithoff, Andreas Altenburger, Bernd Krock, Bánk Beszteri, Sarah Lena Eggers, and Nina Lundholm. 2021. "First Evidence of the Toxin Domoic Acid in Antarctic Diatom Species" Toxins 13, no. 2: 93.

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