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Open AccessReview

Occurrence, Impact on Agriculture, Human Health, and Management Strategies of Zearalenone in Food and Feed: A Review

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CASS Food Research Centre, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, VIC 3125, Australia
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National Institute of Food Technology Entrepreneurship and Management (NIFTEM), Sonipat, Haryana 131028, India
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Department of Dairy Science and Food Technology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India
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Department of Food Technology and Nutrition, School of Agriculture Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144411, India
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Centre for Protected Cultivation Technology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa Campus, New Delhi 110012, India
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Applied Microbiology Lab., Department of Forestry, North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology, Nirjuli 791109, India
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Department of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Gyeongbuk, Korea
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2021, 13(2), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13020092
Received: 4 December 2020 / Revised: 6 January 2021 / Accepted: 22 January 2021 / Published: 26 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zearalenone (ZEN) and Deoxynivalenol (DON) Mycotoxicosis)
Mycotoxins represent an assorted range of secondary fungal metabolites that extensively occur in numerous food and feed ingredients at any stage during pre- and post-harvest conditions. Zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin categorized as a xenoestrogen poses structural similarity with natural estrogens that enables its binding to the estrogen receptors leading to hormonal misbalance and numerous reproductive diseases. ZEN is mainly found in crops belonging to temperate regions, primarily in maize and other cereal crops that form an important part of various food and feed. Because of the significant adverse effects of ZEN on both human and animal, there is an alarming need for effective detection, mitigation, and management strategies to assure food and feed safety and security. The present review tends to provide an updated overview of the different sources, occurrence and biosynthetic mechanisms of ZEN in various food and feed. It also provides insight to its harmful effects on human health and agriculture along with its effective detection, management, and control strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: zearalenone; food and feed contamination; health issues; management strategies zearalenone; food and feed contamination; health issues; management strategies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mahato, D.K.; Devi, S.; Pandhi, S.; Sharma, B.; Maurya, K.K.; Mishra, S.; Dhawan, K.; Selvakumar, R.; Kamle, M.; Mishra, A.K.; Kumar, P. Occurrence, Impact on Agriculture, Human Health, and Management Strategies of Zearalenone in Food and Feed: A Review. Toxins 2021, 13, 92. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13020092

AMA Style

Mahato DK, Devi S, Pandhi S, Sharma B, Maurya KK, Mishra S, Dhawan K, Selvakumar R, Kamle M, Mishra AK, Kumar P. Occurrence, Impact on Agriculture, Human Health, and Management Strategies of Zearalenone in Food and Feed: A Review. Toxins. 2021; 13(2):92. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13020092

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mahato, Dipendra K.; Devi, Sheetal; Pandhi, Shikha; Sharma, Bharti; Maurya, Kamlesh K.; Mishra, Sadhna; Dhawan, Kajal; Selvakumar, Raman; Kamle, Madhu; Mishra, Awdhesh K.; Kumar, Pradeep. 2021. "Occurrence, Impact on Agriculture, Human Health, and Management Strategies of Zearalenone in Food and Feed: A Review" Toxins 13, no. 2: 92. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13020092

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