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Article

Mycobiota and Mycotoxin Contamination of Traditional and Industrial Dry-Fermented Sausage Kulen

1
Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry, Croatian Veterinary Institute, Savska Cesta 143, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
Laboratory for Feed Microbiology, Croatian Veterinary Institute, Savska Cesta 143, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
3
Department of Hygiene, Technology and Food Safety, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb, Heinzelova 55, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
4
Croatian Veterinary Institute, Regional Veterinary Institute Vinkovci, Ul. Josipa Kozarca 24, 32100 Vinkovci, Croatia
5
Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2021, 13(11), 798; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13110798
Received: 20 October 2021 / Revised: 7 November 2021 / Accepted: 11 November 2021 / Published: 12 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxin Contamination and Food Safety)
The aim of this study was to identify and compare surface mycobiota of traditional and industrial Croatian dry-fermented sausage Kulen, especially toxicogenic species, and to detect contamination with mycotoxins recognized as the most important for meat products. Identification of mould species was performed by sequence analysis of beta- tubulin and calmodulin gene, while the determination of mycotoxins aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) was carried out using the LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) method. The results showed a significantly higher number of mould isolates and greater species (including of those mycotoxigenic) diversity in traditional Kulen samples in comparison with the industrial ones. P. commune, as a potential CPA-producer, was the most represented in traditional Kulen (19.0%), followed by P. solitum (16.6%), which was the most represented in industrial Kulen samples (23.8%). The results also showed that 69% of the traditional sausage samples were contaminated with either CPA or OTA in concentrations of up to 13.35 µg/kg and 6.95 µg/kg, respectively, while in the industrial samples only OTA was detected (in a single sample in the concentration of 0.42 µg/kg). Mycotoxin AFB1 and its producers were not detected in any of the analysed samples (<LOD). View Full-Text
Keywords: meat products; cyclopiazonic acid; aflatoxin B1; ochratoxin A; LC-MS/MS; moulds; Penicillium; Aspergillus; molecular identification meat products; cyclopiazonic acid; aflatoxin B1; ochratoxin A; LC-MS/MS; moulds; Penicillium; Aspergillus; molecular identification
MDPI and ACS Style

Lešić, T.; Zadravec, M.; Zdolec, N.; Vulić, A.; Perković, I.; Škrivanko, M.; Kudumija, N.; Jakopović, Ž.; Pleadin, J. Mycobiota and Mycotoxin Contamination of Traditional and Industrial Dry-Fermented Sausage Kulen. Toxins 2021, 13, 798. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13110798

AMA Style

Lešić T, Zadravec M, Zdolec N, Vulić A, Perković I, Škrivanko M, Kudumija N, Jakopović Ž, Pleadin J. Mycobiota and Mycotoxin Contamination of Traditional and Industrial Dry-Fermented Sausage Kulen. Toxins. 2021; 13(11):798. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13110798

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lešić, Tina, Manuela Zadravec, Nevijo Zdolec, Ana Vulić, Irena Perković, Mario Škrivanko, Nina Kudumija, Željko Jakopović, and Jelka Pleadin. 2021. "Mycobiota and Mycotoxin Contamination of Traditional and Industrial Dry-Fermented Sausage Kulen" Toxins 13, no. 11: 798. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13110798

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