Next Article in Journal
Shiga Toxin Selectively Upregulates Expression of Syndecan-4 and Adhesion Molecule ICAM-1 in Human Glomerular Microvascular Endothelium
Next Article in Special Issue
Revealing the Therapeutic Potential of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A in Counteracting Paralysis and Neuropathic Pain in Spinally Injured Mice
Previous Article in Journal
Low Doses of Mycotoxin Mixtures below EU Regulatory Limits Can Negatively Affect the Performance of Broiler Chickens: A Longitudinal Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections Impact Hamstring Muscles and Gait Parameters in Children with Flexed Knee Gait
Review

Botulinum Toxin and Neuronal Regeneration after Traumatic Injury of Central and Peripheral Nervous System

Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, National Research Council of Italy, via Ramarini 32, Monterotondo Scalo, 00015 Rome, Italy
Toxins 2020, 12(7), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12070434
Received: 28 May 2020 / Revised: 30 June 2020 / Accepted: 1 July 2020 / Published: 2 July 2020
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are toxins produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum, the causing agent for botulism, in different serotypes, seven of which (A–G) are well characterized, while others, such as H or FA, are still debated. BoNTs exert their action by blocking SNARE (soluble N-ethylmale-imide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptors) complex formation and vesicle release from the neuronal terminal through the specific cleavage of SNARE proteins. The action of BoNTs at the neuromuscular junction has been extensively investigated and knowledge gained in this field has set the foundation for the use of these toxins in a variety of human pathologies characterized by excessive muscle contractions. In parallel, BoNTs became a cosmetic drug due to its power to ward off facial wrinkles following the activity of the mimic muscles. Successively, BoNTs became therapeutic agents that have proven to be successful in the treatment of different neurological disorders, with new indications emerging or being approved each year. In particular, BoNT/A became the treatment of excellence not only for muscle hyperactivity conditions, such as dystonia and spasticity, but also to reduce pain in a series of painful states, such as neuropathic pain, lumbar and myofascial pain, and to treat various dysfunctions of the urinary bladder. This review summarizes recent experimental findings on the potential efficacy of BoNTs in favoring nerve regeneration after traumatic injury in the peripheral nervous system, such as the injury of peripheral nerves, like sciatic nerve, and in the central nervous system, such as spinal cord injury. View Full-Text
Keywords: botulinum neurotoxin; peripheral nervous system; central nervous system; peripheral nerve injury; spinal cord injury; nerve regeneration botulinum neurotoxin; peripheral nervous system; central nervous system; peripheral nerve injury; spinal cord injury; nerve regeneration
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Luvisetto, S. Botulinum Toxin and Neuronal Regeneration after Traumatic Injury of Central and Peripheral Nervous System. Toxins 2020, 12, 434. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12070434

AMA Style

Luvisetto S. Botulinum Toxin and Neuronal Regeneration after Traumatic Injury of Central and Peripheral Nervous System. Toxins. 2020; 12(7):434. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12070434

Chicago/Turabian Style

Luvisetto, Siro. 2020. "Botulinum Toxin and Neuronal Regeneration after Traumatic Injury of Central and Peripheral Nervous System" Toxins 12, no. 7: 434. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12070434

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop