Biomonitoring of Enniatin B1 and Its Phase I Metabolites in Human Urine: First Large-Scale Study
Department of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, University of Valencia, Av/Vicent A. Estellés s/n, 46100 Valencia, Spain
Department of Pharmacy, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via D. Montesano, 49-80131 Napoli, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Toxins 2020, 12(6), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12060415
Received: 17 May 2020 / Revised: 9 June 2020 / Accepted: 17 June 2020 / Published: 22 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins Study: Toxicology, Identification and Control)
Enniatins (Enns) are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. which are a fungus widely spread throughout cereals and cereal-based products. Among all the identified enniatins, Enn B1 stands as one of the most prevalent analogues in cereals in Europe. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate for the first time the presence of Enn B1 and its phase I metabolites in 300 human urine samples using an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS) methodology. Enn B1 was detected in 94.3% of samples ranging from 0.007 to 0.429 ng/mL (mean value: 0.065 ng/mL). In accordance with previous in vitro and in vivo analysis, hydroxylated metabolites (78.0% samples) and carbonylated metabolites (66.0% samples) were tentatively identified as the major products. Results from this biomonitoring study point to a frequent intake of Enn B1 in the studied population, suggesting that in-depth toxicological studies are needed in order to understand the potential effects in humans.