Next Article in Journal
Multi-Mycotoxin Occurrence and Exposure Assessment Approach in Foodstuffs from Algeria
Previous Article in Journal
Red-Crowned Crane (Grus japonensis) Reproduction Was Improved by Inhibiting Mycotoxins with Montmorillonite in Feed
Open AccessArticle

Development of a Sensitive and Reliable UHPLC-MS/MS Method for the Determination of Multiple Urinary Biomarkers of Mycotoxin Exposure

1
School of Food Science and Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023, China
2
NHC Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Food Safety Research Unit (2019RU014) of Chinese Academy of Medical Science, China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(3), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12030193
Received: 13 February 2020 / Revised: 12 March 2020 / Accepted: 15 March 2020 / Published: 18 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
A variety of mycotoxins from different sources frequently contaminate farm products, presenting a potential toxicological concern for animals and human. Mycotoxin exposure has been the focus of attention for governments around the world. To date, biomarkers are used to monitor mycotoxin exposure and promote new understanding of their role in chronic diseases. The goal of this research was to develop and validate a sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS method using isotopically-labeled internal standards suitable for accurate determination of 18 mycotoxin biomarkers, including fumonisins, ochratoxins, Alternaria and emerging Fusarium mycotoxins (fumonisin B1, B2, and B3, hydrolyzed fumonisin B1 and B2, ochratoxin A, B, and alpha, alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene, tentoxin, tenuazonic acid, beauvericin, enniatin A, A1, B, and B1) in human urine. After enzymatic digestion with β-glucuronidase, human urine samples were cleaned up using HLB solid phase extraction cartridges prior to instrument analysis. The multi-mycotoxin and analyte-specific method was validated in-house, providing satisfactory results. The method provided good linearity in the tested concentration range (from LOQ up to 25–500 ng/mL for different analytes), with R2 from 0.997 to 0.999. The limits of quantitation varied from 0.0002 to 0.5 ng/mL for all analytes in urine. The recoveries for spiked samples were between 74.0% and 133%, with intra-day precision of 0.5%–8.7% and inter-day precision of 2.4%–13.4%. This method was applied to 60 urine samples collected from healthy volunteers in Beijing, and 10 biomarkers were found. At least one biomarker was found in all but one of the samples. The high sensitivity and accuracy of this method make it practical for human biomonitoring and mycotoxin exposure assessment. View Full-Text
Keywords: human biomonitoring; emerging mycotoxins; metabolites; biomarkers; urine; UHPLC-MS/MS human biomonitoring; emerging mycotoxins; metabolites; biomarkers; urine; UHPLC-MS/MS
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Z.; Zhao, X.; Wu, L.; Zhou, S.; Gong, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Wu, Y. Development of a Sensitive and Reliable UHPLC-MS/MS Method for the Determination of Multiple Urinary Biomarkers of Mycotoxin Exposure. Toxins 2020, 12, 193.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop